RBSE Solutions For Class 12 Biology Chapter 28: Reproductive System of Human | Textbook Important Questions & Answers

Important Questions & Solutions for RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 28- Reproductive System of Humans provide complete information related to male reproductive systems, female reproductive systems, their structure and functions. This chapter also includes in-depth explanations of puberty, the onset of puberty in humans, accessory reproductive glands and a lot more.

These important questions help students to enhance their conceptual knowledge and are completely prepared from the exam point of view, helping students revise the entire chapter.

The Rajasthan Board Class 12 Solutions help students by providing a strategy to prepare for various board examinations and also for medical exams like NEET, AIIMS, etc. By practising these important questions, students can gain deep knowledge about the topic.

RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 28 Important Questions

RBSE Biology Chapter 28: MCQ Type Questions

Q.1. Which of the following is the primary reproductive organ in females?

(a) Ovaries

(b) Vagina

(c) Uterus

(d) Oviducts

Sol: (a) Ovaries

Q.2. Formation and maturation of sperms occurs in__________.

(a) Penis

(b) Testes

(c) Scrotum

(d) Accessory glands

Sol: (b) Testes

Q.3. Progesterone hormone is secreted by__________.

(a) Hypothalamus

(b) Pituitary gland

(c) Corpus luteum

(d) All of the above.

Sol: (c) Corpus luteum

Q.4. Graafian follicles are found in__________.

(a) Thyroid gland of a man

(b) A prostate gland of a man

(c) Testes of man

(d) Ovaries of woman

Sol: (d) Ovaries of woman

Q.5. After how many days does the menstrual cycle occur in women?

(a) 14 days

(b) 20 days

(c) 28 days

(d) 32 days

Sol: (c) 28 days

Q.6. Which gland secretes an alkaline fluid that helps in smoothening of the vagina at the time of mating?

(a) Prostate

(b) Cowper

(c) Rectal

(d) Perineal

Sol: (b) Cowper

Q.7.Which of the following is the primary reproductive organ in male?

(a) Testes

(b) Penis

(c) Scrotum

(d) Accessory glands

Sol: (a) Testes

Q.8. Which of the following is the accessory organ of females?

(a) Vulva

(b) Breast

(c) Uterus

(d) Oviduct

Sol: (b) Breast

Q.9. Production and maturation of ovum occurs in__________.

(a) Ovaries

(b) Oviduct

(c) Uterus

(d) All of the above

Sol: (a) Ovaries

Q.10. The maturation of immature reproductive organs in humans is called________.

(a) Reproduction.

(b) Menstrual cycle

(c) Puberty.

(d) None of the above

Sol: (c) Puberty.

RBSE Biology Chapter 28: Short Answer Type Questions

Q.1. What is the function of Vasa efferentia and Vasa deferentia in male reproductive system?

Sol. Vasa efferentia is mainly involved in conducting sperms from the rete testis to the epididymis. Vasa deferentia is involved in conducting sperms from epididymis to the urethra.

Q.2. What are the functions of testis?

Sol. Testis are the primary reproductive organ in males, which are involved in the process of producing sperms through the seminiferous tubules. This process is called spermatogenesis.

Q.3. What is Corpus luteum?

Sol. Corpus luteum is a mass of cells, found in the female reproductive system that is formed in the ovary. It is mainly involved in the secretion of two hormones – Progesterone and relaxation. These cells also act on mammary glands.

Q.4. What is Leydig’s cell?

Sol. Leydig cells are present in the seminiferous tubules of the testis in males. These cells are responsible for the production and secretion of testosterone. It is the primary male sex hormone.

Q.5. What is the function of Androgen hormone?

Sol. Androgen hormones are the group of hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex of the adrenal glands. The Androgen hormones play a most important role in the sexual development in males and in the production of male sex hormones. Hence, Androgen hormones are also called the male hormones.

Q.6. What are the functions of the ovaries?

Sol. Ovaries are the primary reproductive organ in females. There are a pair of ovaries, which are involved in the process of producing ova and this process is called oogenesis. Ovaries are also involved in maintaining the health of the female reproductive system and also secrete two main female sex hormones – progesterone and oestrogen.

Q.7. Which hormone is secreted by Leydig’s cell?

Sol. Leydig cells, present in the seminiferous tubules, produce a class of hormones called Androgens hormones. These hormones are called the male hormones as they play a most important role in the production of male sex hormones.

Q.8. What are the primary sex organs?

Sol. Sex organs are called the reproductive organ in humans as they are involved in sexual reproduction. The primary sex organs are defined as those organs, which are involved in the production of gametes (sperms in males and ova in females). The primary sex organs also secrete

sex hormones. Testes in males and ovaries in females are called the primary sex organs.

Q.9. What is andropause?

Sol. The condition that is associated with the decrease in the secretion of testosterone- male sex hormone is called andropause. In other words, male menopause is called andropause. This condition is generally seen at the age of 60 years.

Q.10. What is Cryptorchidism?

Sol. Cryptorchidism is defined as the common genital condition seen in newborn males. This condition occurs when one or both of the testicles do not descend into the scrotum while the fetus is developing.

Q.11. Which hormones are responsible for regulating menstrual cycles in females?

Sol. The hormones that are responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle in females are:

  1. Estrogen
  2. Progesterone
  3. LH – Luteinizing Hormone
  4. FSH –Follicle Stimulating Hormone.

Q.12. What is Reproduction?

Sol. Reproduction is the biological process of producing its own offspring of the same kind. It is one of the essential processes that helps in providing the continuation of the species generation after generations.

Q.13. What are the functions of the male reproductive system in humans?

Sol. The functions of the male reproductive system in humans are:

  1. It is involved in the secretion and production of male sex hormones.
  2. It functions by producing, transporting, maintaining and nourishing the sperms.
  3. It is involved in the discharge of the sperm within the female reproductive tract.

Q.14. List out the different parts of the female reproductive system.

Sol. The female reproductive system consists of the following parts:

  • A pair of ovaries
  • Fallopian tubes or Oviducts
  • Uterus
  • Vagina.

Q.15. What is a menstrual cycle?

Sol. It is a cycle observed to be taking place in females, lasting for around 28 days on an average to complete. It is a series of cyclic physiological changes occurring in the female reproductive tract in primates, the end of which is combined with the collapsing of the uterine endothelium that is liberated in the form of blood and mucus through the vaginal opening, which is termed as menses.

Q.16. What are Accessory glands?

Sol. These glands, which function by releasing all their secretory substances into the urinary tract are called accessory glands. These glands are found only in the male reproductive system.

Q.17. What are sertoli cells?

Sol. The Sertoli cells are the specialized cells of the male reproductive organ, which are found inside the seminiferous tubules of testes. These cells function by providing support and nutrition to the sperms.

Q.18. What are Accessory ducts?

Sol. The ducts, which store and transport sperms from the testis to urethra are called the accessory ducts. These ducts are found only in the male reproductive system and along with this duct, Vas deferens from seminal vesicles form ejaculatory duct and opens into the urethra.

Q.19. What happens to the scrotal sac during the winter season?

Sol. During the winter season, the scrotal sac shrinks and becomes small. This is caused because the process of spermatogenesis needs a minimum temperature of 34°C to 35°C to produce sperms and as the outside temperature is low, the scrotal sac shrinks and becomes small.

Q.20. What is Cowper’s gland?

Sol. The gland, which enhances the mobility and survival potentiality of sperms in the genital tract of the female reproductive system is called the Cowper’s gland. This gland functions by secreting an alkaline fluid that helps in smoothening of the vagina at the time of mating and is also involved in neutralizing the activity of acidic female vaginal secretions.

RBSE Biology Class 12: Long Answer Type Questions

Q.1. Draw a labelled diagram of the female reproductive system.

Sol. Structure of the female reproductive system

Female Reproductive System

Q.2. What are the accessory reproductive glands in males?

Sol. The glands which release all their secretory substances along with the secretions of the epididymis, seminal vesicles and the sperms from the semen into the urinary tract are called the accessory glands or the accessory reproductive glands. There are three types of accessory reproductive glands in the male reproductive system.

  • Prostate gland.

Nourishes and activates sperms, enhances sperm motility, provides alkalinity to the ejaculate, neutralizes urine acidity.

  • Seminal vesicles.

Activates and provides energy to facilitate sperm motility after ejaculation.

  • Cowper’s gland.

Enhances mobility & survival potentiality of sperms in the genital tract of the female reproductive system, neutralizes the activity of acidic female vaginal secretions.

Q.3. What are mammary glands? Draw a neat labelled diagram of mammary glands.

Sol. A pair of mammary glands are found mainly in the breasts and are female sexual characters. Mammary glands are active only in females and secrete milk for the nourishment of the child.

Structure of Mammary glands.

Structure of Mammary glands

Q.4. What are the secondary sexual characters of a woman?

Sol. Secondary sexual characters are features that appear during puberty. These changes are observed in both male and female.

The secondary sexual characters of a woman are mainly caused by the increased secretion of estrogen by the corpus luteum. These include:

  1. Widening of hips
  2. Erection of nipples
  3. Enlargement of the mammary gland.
  4. Body hair – most prominently underarm and pubic hair
  5. Changes in the inner lips of the vulva, which may grow more prominent and undergo changes in colour with the increased stimulation related to female sex hormones.

Q.5. What is the mucous membrane?

Sol. A mucous membrane, also known as mucosa. It is a layer composed of an ectodermal tissue, which functions by secreting mucus or a fluid substance that protects the internal organs, cell and tissues from dirt and other pathogens. There are different mucous membranes in the human body.

In the reproductive system of humans:

  1. The vaginal mucosa lines the vagina and secretes fluid to keep the vagina moist.
  2. The penile mucosa present in the penis functions by maintaining the moisture levels in the prepuce.

Q.6. Explain the structure of a male reproductive system with a neat labelled diagram.

Sol. The male reproductive system consists of primary reproductive and accessory reproductive organs. The primary sex organs are a pair of testes or also called the male gonads. The accessory reproductive organs are of three types – Prostate gland, Seminal vesicles and Cowper’s gland.

Testes

  • An adult man has a pair of testes, oval-shaped bodies, which are suspended out of the body in the scrotum.
  • The walls of the testes consist of an elastic covering with a thin, hairy and thick inner subcutaneous layer of non-striated muscular fibres, which are known as Dartos muscles.
  • In each half of the scrotal sac, a tuft or a rod-shaped striated muscles fibres are found. It connects the subcutaneous layer with the abdominal subcutaneous muscles and is known as Cremaster muscle.
  • Each cavity of the scrotal sac is connected to the abdominal cavity with the help of a white inguinal canal. In all adult male, the testes are ex-abdominal and are found outside the abdominal cavity in the testes sacs or the scrotal sacs.
  • The spermatogenesis in the testes requires a temperature of about 33°C to 35°C, which is 2 to 4°C less than the body temperature, which is controlled and maintained by the scrotal sacs.
  • The testes descend into the scrotal sac through an inguinal canal. The testicular artery, testicular vein and the testicular nerve are descended into the scrotal sac in the form of a spermatic cord.
  • Each testis is attached in the scrotal sac with the help of a gubernaculum. Both the spermatic cord and the gubernaculum are provided with the elastin fibres.
  • If the testes fail to descend into the scrotal sacs, the spermatogenesis get arrested due to a high temperature, which is called Cryptorchidism

Structure of the male reproductive system.

Male reproductive system

Q.7. List out the changes in male at the onset of puberty.

Sol. The changes include:

  1. Fast growth in the pectoral region.
  2. Psychological attraction towards females.
  3. Changes in the voice, it becomes heavy.
  4. Growth in size of testes with the formation of sperms.
  5. Growth in size of the penis, scrotal sac, prostate gland and seminal vesicle.
  6. Secretion of hormone increases, including the testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH).
  7. Increased growth of hairs on different areas of the body, including the beard, moustache, chest and pelvic region.

Q.8. What is testis? Draw a diagram of the testis.

Sol. The testis is the primary reproductive organ in males, which are involved in the process of producing and maturation of sperms through the seminiferous tubules. This process is called spermatogenesis. A male reproductive system comprises a pair of testes, which are present in the scrotum. These primary reproductive organs help in maintaining an optimal temperature for the production of the sperm.

 Testis in Male.

 Testis in Male

Q.9. Explain the structure of an ovary.

Sol. The ovary is the primary reproductive organ in females. A female reproductive system comprises a pair of ovaries, which functions by producing ovum and other female reproductive hormones.

Structure of Ovary:

  • Ovaries are paired structures found within the abdominal cavity.
  • They are oval in shape or an almond-shaped organ
  • The size of each ovary ranges between 1.5 to 3 cm long and 8mm in its thickness.
  • It is found behind the kidneys in the pelvic region.
  • The ovary produces ovum and also involved in secreting a female sex hormone – Estrogen and Progesterone.

Structure of Ovary- Female Reproductive Organ

 

Q.10. Explain the role of accessory glands in males during the process of reproduction?

Sol. The glands which release all their secretory substances along with the sperms into the urinary tract are called the accessory glands or the accessory reproductive glands.

There are three types of accessory reproductive glands in the male reproductive system:

Prostate gland.

  • It is situated around the anterior end of the urethra.
  • The prostate gland secretes a white fluid, which forms 25 to 30 per cent of semen.
  • The fluid contains Phosphate, lysozymes, spermin, citrate, fibrinolysin, etc.
  • Its secretions activate the sperms and prevent the semen from coagulating.
  • In aged men, the size of the prostate may be enlarged which creates a problem during urine discharge.
  • The prostate gland consists of four main lobes: 1 – Ventral lobe, 1 – Dorsal lobe and 2- lateral lobes.

Seminal vesicles.

  • It is also called the uterus masculine.
  • There is only one pair of Seminal vesicles in man.
  • It consists of fructose, ascorbic acid, prostaglandin and enzymes.
  • The fructose functions by providing energy.
  • The secretions of the seminal vesicles are alkaline, slimy and its pH is about 7.4.

Cowper’s gland.

  • There are a pair of Cowper’s glands, which are also called Bulbo-urethral glands.
  • They are small, round and yellow in colour, which opens into the middle part of the urethra.
  • They secrete transparent and alkaline fluid having a pH between 7.5 to 8.
  • This fluid makes the urethra alkaline before the copulation.

Q.11. Write a note on secondary sexual characters.

Sol. Secondary sexual characters are features that appear during puberty. These changes are observed in both male and female.

The secondary sexual characters of a man are mainly caused by the increased secretion of testosterone from the testes.

The secondary sexual characters of a woman are mainly caused by the increased secretion of estrogen by the corpus luteum.

The below table explains in detail about the secondary sexual characters in man and woman.

Male Female
The low pitch of voice. The high pitch of voice.
Growth of the whole body. Broadening of the breast, pelvic region and deposition of fat in the body.
Secretion of male sex hormones. Secretion of female sex hormones.
Beginning of the spermatogenesis. Growth of mammary glands and beginning of a menstrual cycle.
Growth of hair on the face, thorax and pelvic region. Absence of hair on the body except on the pelvic region.
Growth in the penis, scrotal sacs, prostate glands and semi vesicles. Growth in uterus, vagina, oviducts and clitoris

Q.12. Explain the role of accessory glands in females during the process of reproduction?

Sol. The glands which release all their secretory substances along with the sperms into the urinary tract are called the accessory glands or the accessory reproductive glands.

There are two types of accessory reproductive glands in the female reproductive system:

Prostate glands

A pair of prostate glands open into the anterior part of the vagina. They function by secreting alkaline and neutralizes the acidic medium of the vagina and makes the vagina moist before copulation.

Bartholin glands

On both sides of the vaginal opening, a pair of bean-shaped glands are situated. These are called the Bartholin glands.

These glands function by secreting an alkaline and lubricating fluid, which keeps vulva moist and facilitate sexual intercourse.

Q.13. Describe the female reproductive system with a neat labelled diagram.

Sol. Female reproductive organs.

The female reproductive system is well framed to perform different functions.

The reproductive organs of the female are:

It includes one pair of ovaries, which is the primary reproductive organ.

Accessory reproductive organs found in females are oviducts, uterus, vagina and vulva. The reproductive and mammary glands are also included as accessory glands.

Structure of a Female reproductive system

Ovary

Ovaries are paired structures found within the abdominal cavity. They are oval in shape or an almond-shaped organ. The size of each ovary ranges between 1.5 to 3 cm long and 8 mm in its thickness. It is found behind the kidneys in the pelvic region. The ovary produces ovum and also involved in secreting a female sex hormone – Estrogen and Progesterone.

Oviduct.

There is a pair of oviducts, which originate from the Mullerian duct. The anterior end of the oviduct is modified from a ciliated fimbriated funnel or infundibulum. The mouth of the oviducts is funnel-shaped and is called the ostium. The middle part of the oviduct is called the fallopian tube. The walls of the oviduct comprise unstriated muscles, which are ciliated internally. The fallopian tube is the site for the second maturation division, fertilization and embryonic development.

Uterus.

The posterior part of the oviducts is modified to form a uterus. It is a pear-shaped, hollow organ, which is present in the middle of the pelvic region. Normally, its size is 7.5*50*2.5cm. The wall of the uterus is thick and vascular. The wall of the uterus has three main layers:

  1. Epimedium — It is the outer wall, which is composed of visceral peritoneum.
  2. Myometrium–It is the middle layer, which is composed of smooth muscles. It contains the longest smooth muscles.
  3. Endometrium–It is the innermost layer, which has two layers-stratum functional and stratum basale.

Vagina.

The large, elastic and muscular tube that runs from the cervix- the terminal part of the uterus to the outside of the body is called the vagina.

The vaginal opening is partially closed by a thin membrane called the hymen. This hymen may be torn off due to physical labour, physical activities, sexual contact, etc. Vagina provides a path for the menstrual discharge beside the copulatory organ of the female. It also serves as a birth canal during the birth of the child. The two-fold of tissue called vulva protects the vaginal and urethral openings. The vaginal walls store glycogen. The lactobacilli present on the vagina makes mucus acidic by fermentation, which prevents the vagina from infections.

Vulva

The external genitalia of the women is called the vulva. It is situated just above the perineum in the pelvic area.

Q.14. List out the changes in females at the onset of puberty.

Sol. The changes include:

  1. Enlargements of breasts.
  2. Buttocks become wide.
  3. The fast growth of the pelvic region.
  4. Absence of hairs in the body.
  5. Mammary glands grow on breasts.
  6. There is a storage of fat in the body.
  7. The voice becomes thin, acute and sweet.
  8. Menstrual cycle with menarche begins
  9. Psychological attraction towards the male.
  10. Growth in the size of uterus, vagina, oviduct and vulva.
  11. Secretion of progesterone, estrogen, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH) hormone increases.

Q.15. Define the following terms:

Ovary.

Epididymis.

Corpus luteum.

Sol.

Ovary

Ovaries are paired structures found within the abdominal cavity. They are oval in shape or an almond-shaped organ. The size of each ovary ranges between 1.5 to 3 cm long and 8mm in its thickness. It is found behind the kidneys in the pelvic region. The ovary produces ovum and also involved in secreting a female sex hormone – Estrogen and Progesterone.

Epididymis

It is a thin, highly coiled and comma-shaped tube, which is about 6 meters long that leads into the vas deferens. Its coiled rings are adhered by the connective tissues. The outer side of the epididymis is covered with a thick muscular layer and inner side is lined with the stratified epithelium. It is attached to the inner surface of the testis.

Epididymis comprises three main parts:

Caput epididymis

It is a large cap-like, wide structure, found lying on the upper side of the testes, which receives the vasa efferentia.

Corpus epididymis

It is the middle and narrow part, which is thin and flat and extends up to a lower surface of the testis

Cauda epididymis

It is a small and last part, which is thin and covers the lower portion of the testis. It opens into a vas deferens.

Corpus luteum

Corpus luteum is a mass of cells, found in the female reproductive system that is formed in the ovary. There are a pair of Cowper’s glands, which are also called Bulbo-urethral glands. They are small, round and yellow in colour, which opens into the middle part of the urethra.

The functions of Corpus luteum are:

It is mainly involved in the secretion of two hormones – Progesterone and relaxation.

These cells also act on mammary glands.

They secrete transparent and alkaline fluid having a pH between 7.5 to 8. This fluid makes the urethra alkaline before the copulation.

Q.16. What are the secondary sexual characters of a man?

Sol. Secondary sexual characters are features that appear during puberty. These changes are observed in both male and female.

The secondary sexual characters of a man are mainly caused by the increased secretion of testosterone from the testes. These includes:

  1. Deepening of voice
  2. Enlargement of the larynx (Adam’s apple)
  3. Increase in the muscle mass and strength
  4. Increase in the lower body fat percentage
  5. Growth of body hair, including underarm, abdominal, chest hair and pubic hair, facial hair.

Q.17. What are sex accessory glands of the female reproductive system?

Sol. The sex accessory glands are if two types:

  1. Prostate glands —A pair of prostate glands open into the anterior part of the vagina. They function by secreting alkaline and neutralizes the acidic medium of the vagina and makes the vagina moist before copulation.
  2. Bartholin glands –On both sides of the vaginal opening, a pair of bean-shaped glands are situated. These are called the Bartholin glands. These glands function by secreting an alkaline and lubricating fluid, which keeps vulva moist and facilitate sexual intercourse.

Q.18. Brief out the structure of the vulva.

Sol. The vulva is the external genitalia of women. It is situated just above the perineum in the pelvic area. The structure of the vulva includes:

Mons pubis or Mons veneris.

It is the swollen, fatty tissue covered by the skin and situated above the pubic symphysis.

Labia Majora.

A pair of transverse folds expanded from the mons pubis to the lower side and till back. It is a tissue covered by the skin and hair found on its

Labia Minora.

There is a pair of small folds present inside the labia majora surrounding the vestibule.

Clitoris.

It is a sensory and erectile organ situated at the anterior corner of the labia minora and below the mons pubis. This is homologous to the glans of the penis.

Vestibule.

A fissure-like structure present in the middle of the labia minora is called the vestibule. The urinary orifice or the meatus is found as a small aperture below the clitoris. Just below this is an orifice of the vagina.

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