RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 42 – Bio-Medical Technologies. In this chapter, students can learn in detail about haematological examinations, total Leucocyte count (TLC), differential Leucocyte count (DLC), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), auto analyzer and other major techniques and instruments used in medical science. It also deals with the estimation of haemoglobin in the blood cells, electrocardiography, electroencephalography, computed tomography scan (CT scan), Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound scanning, radioimmunoassay (RIA) and much more.
These important questions help students to perform exceptionally well in their exams. By practising these important questions, students can analyze their preparation, get a thorough knowledge about all the important terminologies and perform their best in the examinations.
RBSE Solutions for Class 12 are the best study material for both class assignments and other board examinations. By practising these important questions, students can gain deep knowledge about the topics explained in this chapter and also help them to be well prepared for their upcoming examinations.
RBSE Class 12 Biology Chapter 42 Important Questions
RBSE Biology Chapter 42: MCQ Type Questions
Q.1. The normal count of monocytes in the blood cells are_________.
(a) 0 to 2 per cent
(b) 2 to 10 per cent
(c) 20 to 40 per cent
(d) None of the above.
Sol: (b) 2 to 10 per cent.
Q.2. Which of the following tests is used for diagnosing typhoid?
(a) ELISA test
(b) Serum Bilirubin test
(c) Widal test
(d) None of the above
Sol: (c) Widal test.
Q.3. Which of the following diseases is caused by the increase in the Basophils count?
(a) Whooping cough
Sol: (b) Chickenpox.
Q.4. Which of the following radiations are used in a CT scan?
(a) X Rays
(b) Alpha (ɑ) rays
(c) Beta (β) rays
(d) Gamma (ɣ) rays
Sol: (a) X Rays.
Q.5. MRI stands for _________.
(a) Magnetic Radio Imaging
(b) Multiple Radio Imaging
(c) Magnetic Resonance Indicator
(d) Multiple Resonance Imaging
Sol: (c) Magnetic Resonance Indicator.
Q.6.Which of the following procedures is used to diagnose heart-related diseases?
(d) CAT scan
Sol: (b) ECG.
Q.7. Which of the following diseases is caused by the increase in the number of leucocytes?
(c) Blood cancer
Sol: (c) Blood cancer.
Q.8. Which of the following tools is used to measure the haemoglobin content of the blood?
(b) Wintrobe method
(c) Westergren method
Sol: (d) Haemoglobinometer.
Q.9. Which of the following technologies was invented by Rosalyn and Yalow?
(a) Radioimmunoassay (RIA)
(b) Ultrasound Scanning
(c) Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
(d) Computed Tomographic Scan (CT scan)
Sol: (a) Radioimmunoassay (RIA).
Q.10. The ESR value of a healthy female is _________.
(a) 0-10 mm per hour
(b) 0-12 mm per hour
(c) 0-16 mm per hour
(d) 0-20 mm per hour
Sol: (d) 0-20 mm per hour.
RBSE Biology Chapter 42: Short and Long Answer Type Questions.
Q.1.What is used for the total leucocyte count?
Sol: Neubauer’s haemocytometer is a counting-chamber device originally designed and used for counting the total number of leukocytes present in the blood cells.
Q.2.What is Leukocytosis?
Sol: Leukocytosis is the type of blood disorder, caused by an increase in the WBC count.
Q.3. What is ECG?
Sol: An electrocardiogram or ECG is a test used to measure the electrical activity of the heart.
Q.4. Who developed ECG:
Sol: The ECG -Electrocardiogram was first developed by a Dutch physician and physiologist Willem Einthoven in the year 1895.
Q.5. What is used in the place of x-rays in M.R.I?
Sol: Magnetic resonance is used in the place of x-rays in M.R.I.
Q.6.Which crystals are used in sonography?
Sol: The crystals used in sonography are Lead Zirconate Crystals.
Q.7. What are the types of ECG Test?
Sol: There are three main types of ECG tests:
- Resting ECG
This type of ECG is used to examine the electrical activity of the heart in the rest position.
- Exercise ECG
This type of ECG is used to examine the electrical activity of the heart during stress or exercise. In this test, a patient is asked to run or walk on the treadmill or a cycle while the heartbeat is recorded.
- 24-hour ECG
This type of ECG is conducted for 24 hours. The heart’s electrical impulses are measured by a device called the Holter Monitor.
Q.8. Which instrument is used to measure the heartbeat?
Sol: Stethoscope is the medical instrument used to measure the heartbeat. Apart from the heartbeat, the stethoscope is used for auscultation or listening to sounds produced by the body including the lungs, intestinal tract, blood flow in peripheral vessels and also the heartbeat of the developing fetuses in pregnant women.
Q.9. What happens when the value of ESR increases?
Sol: ESR stands for Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. It is a simple test used to measure the degree of inflammation present in the body by measuring the rate of fall of erythrocytes – Red blood cells. As per the records, the normal ESR test value should be between 0 and 20 mm/hr. This value varies between the age and the sex of an individual.
If the ESR test value is higher than the normal value, then an individual is suspected with the other health disorders, such as :
- Multiple Myeloma
- Rheumatoid Arthritis, etc.
Q.10. What is EEG?
Sol: An electroencephalogram – EEG is a type of medical test, which is used for evaluating the electrical activity in the human brain. Through this EEG test, doctors can diagnose certain brain-related disorders including the conditions like dizziness, headaches, brain tumours, sleep problems, epilepsy, seizures, head injuries, etc. It is also used to confirm brain death.
Q.11.What is X-ray? List out the different types of X-rays.
Sol: X-Rays or X-radiation is a form of electromagnetic radiation.
A few important types of X-Rays are:
- Lungs X-rays
- Chest X-rays
- Abdomen X-rays
- Teeth and bones X-rays
- Standard Computed Tomography
- Kidney, Ureter and Bladder X-ray
Q.12. Describe in brief the Westergren method used to measure E.S.R.
Sol: ESR- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
The procedure of the Westergren method includes the following steps:
- The collected blood sample is mixed with an anticoagulant like Trisodium citrate and placed undisturbed for a few minutes in an ESR measuring tube.
- Blood cells being denser than the blood plasma move towards the bottom of the tube and settle down.
- The rate of setting down of the blood cells is called ESR-Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
The ESR-Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate is measured by two different methods:
- Western method.
- Wintrobe method.
In most of the pathological laboratories, only the western method is used for the testing of ESR- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
The process of the Western method is discussed below:
- The western green tubes are filler up to the zero points with the blood containing anticoagulants. This tube is kept legitimately in a vertical position in the ESR stand.
- After an hour the upper level of the erythrocytes (red blood cells) is found red in the ESR tube. This is the value of ESR- Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate.
The ESR value of a healthy person is as follows:
Male- 0 to 16 mm per hour.
Female- 0 to 22 mm per hour.
If the ESR value of a person is more than the normal value, it results in irregularities in the body. The value of ESR increases in many chronic diseases like tuberculosis, rheumatoid arthritis, multiple myeloma, allergies and other inflammatory diseases.
Moreover, the value of the ESR increases during pregnancy.
Q.13. What is the importance of sonography technique?
Sol: The main significance or importance of sonography technique are:
- It is used to assess the foetal growth
- It is used to check the abnormalities in an adult body.
- This technique is also helpful as it provides a picture of blood flow through the beating heart.
Q.14. Explain the process of electrocardiograph.
Sol: An electrocardiogram or ECG is a test used to measure the electrical activity of the heart. The test takes only about a few minutes and is devoid of any pain. It is the graphic record produced by an electrocardiograph that provides details about one’s heart rate and rhythm and depicts if the heart has enlarged due to hypertension (high blood pressure) or evidence of a myocardial infarction previously (heart attack if any).
Process of ECG – electrocardiograph:
The process of electrocardiograph includes:
- The patient is connected to the Electrocardiograph (ECG) machine with three small sticky electrodes attached to the arms, chest and legs.
- These electrodes are connected to the ECG machine through wires that help in detecting the electrical impulses occurring at each heartbeat.
- These electrodes usually detect the very minute form of changes in an electrical path on the skin which arises from the heart muscles and the electrophysiologic patterns of the depolarizing during every heartbeat.
Q.15.Why is an ECG done?
Sol: ECG – Electrocardiogram is done for the following reasons:
- To test cardiac stress.
- To check the thickness of the chambers of the heart wall.
- To monitor if the medicines are causing any side-effects.
- To check if the mechanical devices implanted in the heart are working properly or not.
- To check the heart health in case of other diseases such as diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol, etc.
Q.16. List out the abnormalities observed in the differential leucocytes counts (DLC)?
Sol: Leucocytes are also called White blood cells (WBCs) or leukocytes. These blood cells are part of the body’s immune system, which functions by fighting against the infections, infectious diseases and other diseases.
The abnormalities observed in the differential counts of leukocytes causes various diseases. Some of them are listed below:
|Nature of abnormalities in the differential count of Leucocytes||Indication of the possible diseases|
|Increase in Neutrophils cell count.||Indication of infections and inflammatory action causing normal pus.|
|Increase in Eosinophil’s cell count.||Hypersensitivity or allergy disease and the indications of parasitic infections.|
|Increase in Basophils cell count.||Chickenpox diseases.|
|Increase in lymphocytes cell count.||Whooping cough.|
|Increase in monocyte cell count.||Indication of TB (Tuberculosis) disease.|
|Excessive deficiency in T4 lymphocytes.||Indication of AIDS disease.|
Q.17. Explain in detail about the process of haemoglobin measurements in blood.
Sol: Estimation of haemoglobin in blood:
Estimation of haemoglobin in blood is called hemoglobinopathy. Haemoglobin is a respiratory pigment found in the red blood corpuscles. Chemically, it is a chemoprotection which is used for the transport of oxygen and carbon dioxide.
The value of haemoglobin differs with the age and sex of an individual. A value of haemoglobin less than the normal value is an indicator of anaemia.
The normal value of haemoglobin is as follows:
|Age||Haemoglobin g/100 ml blood|
|Healthy adult male||15.5 ± 2.5|
|Healthy adult female||14 ± 2.5|
|Children (3 months)||11.5 ± 2.5|
|Children (3 to 6 years)||12 ± 1|
|Children (10 to 12 years)||3 ± 1.5|
Haemoglobin content is measured with Haemoglobinmeter. Traditionally Sahil’s Haemoglobinmeter is used for measuring the content of haemoglobin in the blood cells.
Photohaemoglobinometer and autoanalyzer are also used for measuring the content of haemoglobin in the blood cells.
- This device contains a graduated tube and two standard matching tubes are placed in a stand.
- Between the two standard tubes, a measuring graduated tube is placed and is filled with N/10 HCl acid solution up to zero points.
- Now using the pipette of 0.02ml the blood is transferred to the measuring tube. Blood is thoroughly mixed with N/10 HCl acid solution.
- The N/10 HCl acid solution converts haemoglobin into a brown coloured substance called haematin. The measuring tube is now placed in between the two standard tubes.
- Distilled water is added drop by drop by continuous mixing to the measuring tube until the colour of the haematin solution matches with the colour of the standard tubes.
- When the colour matching between the tubes is ensured, haemoglobin content is measured by observing the reading on a measuring graduated tube.
Q.18. What are the salient features of ECG?
Sol: Salient features of ECG
- The ECG is recorded on a special graph paper, which is divided into 1mm2 grid-like boxes.
- The normal ECG includes P wave, QRS complex and ST -T – U complex.
- The P wave is a small upward deflection and it represents atrial depolarization.
- The QRS complex represents rapid ventricular depolarisation (systole). It includes a small downward deflection, a rapid upright stroke and a small downward deflection.
- The ST -T – U complex includes ST regimens, T wave and U wave. It represents the ventricular repolarization.
- The J point is the junction between the end of the QRS complex and the beginning of ST-segment.
- Atrial repolarization is too low in amplitude to be detected.
There are four major ECG intervals:
- R- R intervals- It is used to compute the heartbeats per minute.
- P-R intervals- It is used to measure the time between atrial and ventricular depolarization.
- Qrs interval- It reflects the duration of ventricular depolarization and atrial repolarization.
- QT interval- It includes both ventricular depolarisation and repolarisation times.
Q.19. Explain in detail about MRI.
Sol: Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) was first discovered by F. Bloch and E.M. Purcell independently and they shared the Nobel prize in the year 1952.
- In this technique, the dimensional images of body organs are obtained without using X-rays and other radiations.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) detects water because it focuses on the behaviour of hydrogen atoms in water molecules.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can distinguish between water-poor and water abundant tissues. Therefore, the tissues with little water such as bones and the teeth do not appear in the MRI scan.
- This technique is mainly based on the natural behaviour of protons of hydrogen atoms and the most abundant sources of protons are the hydrogen atoms in the water molecule.
- Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is mainly used to study organs like the brain and the spinal cord to examine joint injuries and slip discs and to visualize minute cancerous tumours.
- MRI is based on the phenomenon known as nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).
The procedure of MRI scan:
- During the MRI testing, the patient is positioned in a two-meter wide chamber of an MRI scanner.
- This chamber is surrounded by a large cylindrical electromagnetic field that produces a very strong magnetic field and waves.
- On an account of the very high magnetic field, nuclei of the hydrogen atom get activated and release radio signals.
- These signals are processed by a computer. Through the processing of radio signals, thin high contrast images are obtained.
The MRI images are much better than the images obtained by the CT scan because:
- They provide high contrast using MRI technique, images from all body axis can be obtained.
- Although MRI is a costly technique, which is very helpful for the diagnosis and study of the brain and the spinal cord.
- This technique can clearly differentiate between the white and the grey matter of the brain.
Q.20. What is RIA? Explain its procedure and the applications of RIA?
Sol: RIA – RadioImmunoAssay.
Radioimmunoassay is an analytical technique which has been used for the last many years.
The molecule which is to be analysed, which acts as an antigen is marked with radiolabeled substances.
Procedure of RIA
- The labelled and normal antigen molecules are allowed to react with the specific antibody.
- A comparative analysis of the reaction is done. In this technique, the radioisotopes are used as marker molecules.
- This technique was invented by Rosalyn and Yalow, which has become one of the most important diagnostic techniques.
- RadioImmunoAssay is especially important for the analysis of those biochemical factors that are present in very minute concentration (microgram, nanogram or picogram) and cannot be analysed by the traditional gravimetric and volumetric processes.
- The radioisotopes used in radioimmunoassay are high specificity molecules, which provides a very high sensitivity to these techniques.
- In these techniques, the standard solution of different concentrations of normal molecules of the substances to be analysed is used with the solutions of the radiolabeled substances of similar concentrations.
- This mixture is allowed to react with the antibodies. At the stage of equilibrium, antigen-antibody complexes are absorbed by suitable reagents.
- The precipitated and supernatant parts are separated and by measuring the radioactivity, the concentration of the substance is estimated.
- A major characteristic of Radio Immuno Analysis is that the patient does not suffer from any side effect.
- The patient is never treated with the radioisotopic molecules because the whole process is executed outside the body.
Application of RIA
- Using this technique, the concentration of important biological components like vitamins, hormones, drugs, and other antigenic substances can be determined.
- For the diagnosis of the abnormalities of the endocrine glands, radioimmunoassays are very useful. For example, the presence of an excessive amount of some hormones in the blood may be a result of hyperactivity of endocrine glands or due to the impact of the tropic hormones. These types of problems related to hormonal imbalances can only be solved by this technique- RIA.
- This technique is useful for the diagnosis of tumours, insulinoma, etc. It also helps in the proper treatment of these diseases.
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