Basic Practices of Crop Production

Cultivation of the same kind of plant in a large area is known as a crop. These crops are cultivated in a very systematic manner nowadays. Basic agricultural practices include the following:

Soil Preparation

After selecting the crop, the land is prepared for cultivation. If the land prepared is good, it yields good quality crops. The methods of soil preparation include:

1.Ploughing

It is also known as tiling. It is the process of loosening and turning the soil either manually or by the tractors. Organic manures and phosphates are mixed with the soil at this stage. This increases the fertility of the soil before the seeds are sown.

2.Harrowing

This method is done to smoothen the soil. The weeds are removed and fertilizers are mixed with soil. This also brings the moisture of the soil up.

3.Levelling

Uneven land affects the quality of the crops. It also helps in providing optimum moisture to the soil. The land is levelled to increase the water use efficiency of the soil. It reduces weed problems and irrigation time. The crop matures uniformly.

4.Manuring

The process of adding organic minerals and nutrients to the soil is called manuring. Manure can be of three types:

  1. Animal manure
  2. Plant manure
  3. Compost

Sowing

Good quality and healthy seeds are collected for sowing. They should be planted at the correct depth in the soil. They must be treated with chemicals to assist in germination. Weed control is done to prevent the weed from entering into the fertilizer. The soil should have enough water so that seed germination occurs properly. The seeds should not be planted close to each other as it reduces the amount of sunlight, water, and nutrients received by them.

Crop Growth and Fertilization

After the seeds have germinated, they are checked for any water stress in the soil. Water-stressed plants are highly unproductive. Adequate manure and fertilizers are added to the soil to increase its productivity. Urea should be provided thrice during the plant growth, once during the seeding, and twice after the crop starts growing.

Harvesting, Storage and Marketing

After the crop is completely grown, it is ready to harvest. The crops are harvested by mechanical or manual methods. It is the cutting and manufacturing of finished crops. The grains are separated by threshing. Manually, the grains are harvested by a sickle.

The separated grains are dried in the sun and packaged in bags before they are stored in granaries. The damage caused by the rodents is also reduced.

The marketing is done through a private or central government agency.

In order to provide food to our growing population, it is necessary to adopt proper agricultural practices to produce food on a large scale. These production practices help the farmers grow healthy, infection-free crops.

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