Central Dogma

Central Dogma

In microbiology, central Dogma illustrates the flow of genetic information from DNA to RNA to protein. In simple it is defined as a process in which the information in DNA is converted into a functional product. It is suggested that the information present in a DNA are essential to make up all proteins and RNA act as a messenger that carries information through the ribosomes.

The concept of a sequence of interaction can be understood through the framework. The most common include biopolymers. The major category of biopolymers include Proteins, RNA and DNA. they are further divided into general transfers, unknown transfers, and special transfers. Among them, special transfers occur in the exceptional case in the laboratory. General transfers in almost all cells. It describes the regular flow of mRNA transcription, DNA replication, and translation. Unknown transfers are said never to occur.

The biopolymers are linear polymers that include RNA, DNA, and peptides. Biopolymers are polymers that are produced by living organisms. One of the most common biopolymers present on the earth is cellulose which is an organic compound. They have a definite structure. Zein is a naturally occurring biopolymer. Coming to environmental impacts biopolymers are sustainable. They are even renewable as most of them are made from plant materials.

Genetic Code

The genetic code degenerates. There exist around sixty-four nucleotide triplets. They are termed as codons. Twenty different amino acids are encoded by sixty different nucleotide triplets. It is possible for these amino acids to encode more than one codon. The polypeptide is produced when sixty-four codons terminate the protein synthesis. The stop codon is used by several microorganisms to encode twenty-one amino acids.

Transcription

Stages of Transcription

There are two stages of gene expression. Transcription and translation. In transcription, the information present in DNA is converted into small RNA messages. It comprises of three stages termination, elongation, and initiation. Transcription is the first step in gene expression.

The process starts with RNA polymerase which is a vital transcription enzyme. Through helper proteins, RNA polymers bind to a promoter sequence. It creates a new RNA molecule by making use of one of the DNA strands as a template. Through termination process, the transcription ends. It depends on sequences in the RNA, which indicates that the transcript is finished.

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Practise This Question

Match the following related to phenotypes and genotypes of blood groups
 ColumnI ColumnII1.AP.(ii)2.BQ.IA IA , IA i3.ABR.IB IB , IB i4.OS.IA IB