Difference between DNA-RNA Hybrids and dsDNA

DNA-RNA Hybrids

These are hybrid nucleic acids composed of one strand of RNA and one strand of DNA. Usually, the RNA is complementary to the DNA strand. During transcription, DNA is converted into an RNA molecule. Thus both strands come in close proximity. This can result in the formation of DNA-RNA hybrids.

dsDNA

Double-stranded DNA or dsDNA is composed of two strands of DNA that are complementary to each other. They form a twisted double-helical structure. This typical dsDNA is abundant in number compared to the DNA-RNA hybrids.

Structure of dsDNA

The nucleosides are molecules composed of nucleobases (A, G, T, C) and the sugar structure. This nucleoside, along with a phosphate group, is termed a nucleotide. These nucleotides compose the strands of DNA. Both the strands of dsDNA are non-covalently held together by hydrogen bonds.

Difference between DNA-RNA Hybrids and dsDNA

DNA-RNA Hybrids

dsDNA

They are hybrids composed of one DNA and one RNA strand. Here, the RNA strand is complementary to the DNA.

dsDNA is composed of two strands of DNA that are complementary to each other.

This hybrid is more stable.

It is comparatively less stable.

DNA-RNA hybrids are comparatively low in abundance.

dsDNA is abundant in number.

Explore: Difference between Replication and Transcription

Frequently Asked Questions

What is R-loop?

The DNA-RNA hybrid, along with another strand of non-template DNA, forms a three-stranded structure called the R-loop. This R-loop can also inhibit the transcription process.

What is D-loop?

The two strands of dsDNA, along with a third DNA strand between them, is termed as d-loop. R-loop has two DNA and one RNA strand. Whereas D-loop has three DNA strands. Sometimes, this can occur during the DNA repair mechanism. Also, D-loop is seen as a semi-stable structure in the circular DNA of mitochondria.

What is circular DNA?

Circular DNA is a form of closed-loop DNA that has no ends. This type of DNA is found in the cytoplasm of most prokaryotic cells, and in the organelles like chloroplasts and mitochondria. The plasmid DNA is a classic example of extrachromosomal circular DNA.

Also Read: Difference between deoxyribose and ribose

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