Biology is the science of life that involves the study of living organisms, including their chemical compositions, physical compositions, developments, functions, and evolution. The word Biology is derived from the Greek word “bios” which means “life” and “logos” which means “study”. Modern biology is a vast field which is composed of various branches. Some branches of biology are given in the points below.

  • Botany: The study of plants and agriculture.
  • Zoology: The study of animals and their behaviour.
  • Biochemistry: The study of materials that make up every living thing.
  • Ecology: The study of the interaction between living organisms and the environment.
  • Genetics: The study of heredity.
  • Evolutionary Biology:  The study of evolution.
  • Cellular Biology: The study of cells.

There are various other interesting branches in Biology which students can check at BYJU’S. Students are advised to have an open mind, curiosity, and willingness to learn about the natural world if they want to learn biology in a fun way.

Properties of Carbon

Did you know, carbon is the second most abundant element in humans (about 18% of mass) after oxygen? Explore more about this element and the reason behind its importance in biological elements.

Macro Molecules

Food provides the body with the nutrients it needs to survive. Many of these critical nutrients are biological macromolecules, or large molecules, necessary for life. Four main types of macromolecules such as proteins, carbohydrates, nucleic acids and lipids control all activities. Explore the types of macromolecules, their importance in human life and how they build up.

Energy and Enzymes

Several chemical reactions are taking place in the body of a living organism and surprisingly all of them are mediated by enzymes. Read more about how energy transfers occur in a human body and how biological energy transfers work and much more.

Structure of a Cell

Do you know, humans have about 100 trillion cells in their body! All the living organisms that exist in this whole universe – like mushrooms, plants, humans, elephants etc. are made up of lots and lots of cells! Learn more about different types of cells, their structure and much more.

Membranes and Transport

This topic is all about how cells protect themselves from the surrounding with a barrier. Explore more about what this barrier is made up of? how it works and how the molecules are transported across the membrane?

Cellular Respiration

Respiration is one of an essential process carried out by all living organism to survive. Explore more about how it extracts energy from food for the human body? how respiration occurs at the cellular level, its types and much more.


Did you know photosynthesis is the single most important chemical process on the earth? Learn more about how plants utilize sunlight to convert light energy into chemical energy, Calvin Cycle, light-dependent reactions and much more.

Cell Division

Did you know in an average human body almost 2 trillion cell divisions occur on a daily basis? Every organism goes through the cell division process. So let’s study about how cell division occurs and how the problem in cell cycle control is responsible for causing cancer.

Classical and Molecular Genetics

Know about the reason behind the resemblance of children to their parents, the impact of genetics on the next generation and explore more about Mendel’s model of inheritance, it’s disorders and much more.

DNA as the Genetic Material

Did you know your DNA could stretch from the earth to the sun and back approximately 600 times? Explore more facts about DNA, its structure and much more.

Central Dogma

The central dogma of molecular biology explains the flow of genetic information, from DNA to RNA, to make a functional product, a protein. Explore more about this amazing process and much more.

Gene Regulation

Did you know we have tens of thousands of genes in our genome? Read more about what is gene regulation and how it controls the manner and rate of gene expression.


Did you know humans have unknowingly used biotechnology practices for thousands of years, specifically in pharmaceuticals and farming? Explore more facts about biotechnology, its application and its scope in agriculture.

Bacteria and Archaea

At about 5 million trillion strong, bacteria and their cousins, the archaea, vastly outnumber all other life-forms on earth! Read about the difference between bacteria and archaea and much more.


Viruses are neither dead nor alive! Yes, it is quite surprising, so learn more facts about these fascinating particles that occupy a “grey area” between living and nonliving things.

Evolution and the Tree of life

Discover the diversity of life on earth and the forces that help to shape it! Explore more about evolution, natural selection and biological evolution and much more.

History of life on Earth

The first life on Earth developed in the oceans through a process called abiogenesis or biopoiesis. This is a natural process in which life grows from nonliving matter like simple organic compounds! Explore more about life on earth.


Ecology encompasses all living things, from single-cellular and acellular organisms, through to the most complex of all living creatures. Read more about ecology, population ecology, types of biogeochemical cycles and much more.

Biodiversity and Conservation

Biodiversity is very important to an ecosystem because each species plays a different role in the maintenance of the ecosystem. Discover more about the ecosystem, ecosystem services and much more.

Plant Biology

Did you know pineapple is a berry? Explore more facts and information about plants like parts of plants, classification of plants and much more.

Human Biology

The human body is an amazing system as it is made up of a group of organs called the organ system. Explore more about the organ systems starting from the circulatory system to the nervous system and much more.

Learning biology could be a hard job if you don’t create an effective method to memorize the hundreds of terminologies and definitions involved. At BYJU’S, we provide you with video lessons that contain an elaborately animated representation of the actions and reactions of the Biological world. Once you watch these videos and understand the occurrences of the Biological world, it will become impossible for you to forget those.

Starting from class 6 with the explanations regarding food, the living organisms, etc. till the much more interesting topics in Botany and Zoology taught in class 12, like principles of inheritance and variation, evolution, reproduction in organisms, etc. BYJU’S provide very interesting sessions of video classes presented by experts in the area.

Student’s can learn more about Biology topics along with interactive video sessions, regular tests prepared by our experts,  and much more by subscribing to BYJU’S Learning App.

Plant Tissues

Heredity and Evolution

Practise This Question

Which type of irrigation method is similar to rainfall?