Active Transport is defined as a process that involves the movement of molecules from a region of lower concentration to a region of higher concentration against a gradient or an obstacle with or without the use of external energy. The below diagram shows the process of active transport, which uses an external energy ATP for the movement of the molecules.
The uptake of glucose in the intestine of the human body and also the uptake of minerals or ions into the root hair cells of the plants are some of the examples of active transport.
Types of Active transport–
There are two types of active transport namely Primary active transport and Secondary active transport.
- Primary active transport-It is a Process energy is utilized in the form of ATP to transport molecules across the membrane against a concentration gradient. Therefore, all the groups of ATP powered pumps contain one or more binding sites for the ATP, which are present on the cytosolic face of the membrane.
Basically, this type of transport uses an external chemical energy such as the ATP.
- Secondary active transport– Secondary active transport is a kind of active transport that uses an electrochemical energy. It takes place across a biological membrane where a transporter protein couples the movement of an electrochemical ion (typically Na+ or H+) down its electrochemical gradient to the upward movement of another molecule or an ion against a concentration/electrochemical gradient.
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