## NCERT Solutions of Class 12 Maths – Free 2021-22 CBSE PDF Download

**NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths** provide a solid conceptual base for all the topics included in CBSE Class 12 Maths Syllabus. It covers all the important theorems and formulae with detailed explanations to promote a better conceptual understanding in students. NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths will help students in the preparation of undergraduate level Engineering entrance exams like JEE Mains, BITSAT, VITEEE, etc, to be conducted for the year, 2021-2022.

BYJU’S brings you **NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths**, designed by our subject experts to facilitate smooth and precise understanding of concepts. These Class 12 Solutions of NCERT have detailed step-by-step explanations of problems given in the textbooks. Apart from solutions for each chapter of CBSE Class 12 Maths, BYJU’S also provides Class 12 Maths notes, solved exemplar problems and previous year questions papers, along with worksheets as study materials for students who are preparing for their Class 12 board exams.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 12 Maths Chapter-wise PDF

- Chapter 1 Relations and Functions
- Chapter 2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions
- Chapter 3 Matrices
- Chapter 4 Determinants
- Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability
- Chapter 6 Applications of Derivatives
- Chapter 7 Integrals
- Chapter 8 Applications of Integrals
- Chapter 9 Differential Equations
- Chapter 10 Vector Algebra
- Chapter 11 Three dimensional Geometry
- Chapter 12 Linear Programming
- Chapter 13 Probability

## Class 12 Maths NCERT Solutions Exercises

Students can download **PDF of Maths NCERT Solutions for Class 12**, chapter-wise from the links given below.

### Chapter 1 Relations and Functions – Term I

Chapter 1 of NCERT textbook deals with relations and functions, types of relation, types of functions, the composition of functions and invertible function, binary operations and miscellaneous examples. Here, you can find the exercise solution links for the topics covered in this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 Relations and Functions for First Term:*

Types of relations: reflexive, symmetric, transitive and equivalence relations. One to one and onto functions.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 1 Exercises |
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Exercise 1.1 |

Exercise 1.2 |

Exercise 1.3 |

Exercise 1.4 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions – Term I

Chapter 2, Inverse Trigonometric Functions of NCERT Class 12 Maths, gives an account of various topics such as the remarks based on basic concepts of inverse trigonometric functions, properties of inverse trigonometric functions and miscellaneous examples. These concepts are explained very well through examples. Solutions to the exercises from the chapter can be accessed from here.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 2 Inverse Trigonometric Functions for First Term:*

Definition, range, domain, principal value branch.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 2 Exercises |
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Exercise 2.1 |

Exercise 2.2 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 3 Matrices – Term I

In Chapter 3 of NCERT textbook, we shall see the definition of a matrix, types of matrices, equality of matrices, operations on matrices such as the addition of matrices and multiplication of a matrix by a scalar, properties of matrix addition, properties of scalar multiplication, multiplication of matrices, properties of multiplication of matrices, transpose of a matrix, properties of the transpose of the matrix, symmetric and skew-symmetric matrices, elementary operation or transformation of a matrix, the inverse of a matrix by elementary operations and miscellaneous examples. Here, you can find the exercise solution links for the topics covered in this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 3 Matrices for First Term:*

Concept, notation, order, equality, types of matrices, zero and identity matrix, transpose of a matrix, symmetric and skew symmetric matrices. Operation on matrices: Addition and multiplication and multiplication with a scalar. Simple properties of addition, multiplication and scalar multiplication. Noncommutativity of multiplication of matrices, Invertible matrices; (Here all matrices will have real entries).

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 3 Exercises |
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Exercise 3.1 |

Exercise 3.2 |

Exercise 3.3 |

Exercise 3.4 |

Miscellaneous-Exercise |

### Chapter 4 Determinants – Term I

Chapter 4 of **12 Class NCERT Maths Solution** discusses the topic of determinants. Students will get to learn about the definition and meaning of determinants, remarks based on order of determinants, properties of determinants, finding area of triangle using determinants, minors and cofactors of determinants, adjoint of a matrix, inverse of matrix, applications of determinants and matrices and miscellaneous examples. Below we have links provided to each exercise solution covered in this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 4 Determinants for First Term:*

Determinant of a square matrix (up to 3 x 3 matrices), minors, co-factors and applications of determinants in finding the area of a triangle. Adjoint and inverse of a square matrix. Solving system of linear equations in two or three variables (having unique solution) using inverse of a matrix.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 4 Exercises |
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Exercise 4.1 |

Exercise 4.2 |

Exercise 4.3 |

Exercise 4.4 |

Exercise 4.5 |

Exercise 4.6 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability – Term I

Chapter 5 of NCERT textbook starts with the definition of continuity. Students go on to learn about continuity, algebra of continuous function, definition and meaning of differentiability, derivatives of composite functions, derivative of implicit functions, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, exponential and logarithmic functions, logarithmic differentiation, derivatives of functions in parametric forms, second order derivatives, mean value theorem via miscellaneous examples. Here, students can find the exercises explaining these concepts properly with solutions.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 5 Continuity and Differentiability for First Term:*

Continuity and differentiability, derivative of composite functions, chain rule, derivative of inverse trigonometric functions, derivative of implicit functions. Concept of exponential and logarithmic functions.

Derivatives of logarithmic and exponential functions. Logarithmic differentiation, derivative of functions expressed in parametric forms. Second order derivatives.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 5 Exercises |
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Exercise 5.1 |

Exercise 5.2 |

Exercise 5.3 |

Exercise 5.4 |

Exercise 5.5 |

Exercise 5.6 |

Exercise 5.7 |

Exercise 5.8 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 6 Applications of Derivatives – Term I

Chapter 6 of NCERT textbook, provides definition of derivatives, rate of change of quantities, increasing and decreasing functions, tangents and normals, approximations, maxima and minima, first derivative test, maximum and minimum values of a function in a closed interval and miscellaneous examples. Here, students can find the exercises explaining these concepts properly.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 6 Applications of Derivatives for First Term:*

Applications of derivatives: increasing/decreasing functions, tangents and normals, maxima and minima (first derivative test motivated geometrically and second derivative test given as a provable tool). Simple problems (that illustrate basic principles and understanding of the subject as well as real life situations).

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 6 Exercises |
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Exercise 6.1 |

Exercise 6.2 |

Exercise 6.3 |

Exercise 6.4 |

Exercise 6.5 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 7 Integrals – Term II

In Chapter 7, Integrals, we shall see the definition of indefinite integral, integration as an inverse process of differentiation, geometrical interpretation of indefinite integral, properties of indefinite integral, comparison between differentiation and integration, methods of integration such as integration by substitution, integration using partial fractions, integration by parts, integration using trigonometric identities, integration of some integral functions, definition and meaning of definite integrals, definite integral as the limit of a sum, fundamental theorem of calculus, evaluation of definite integrals by substitution, some properties of definite integrals and miscellaneous examples. Here, we have given exercises with solutions based on these topics from the chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 7 Integrals for Second Term:*

Integration as inverse process of differentiation. Integration of a variety of functions by substitution, by partial fractions and by parts, Evaluation of simple integrals of the following types and problems based on them.

Fundamental Theorem of Calculus (without proof).Basic properties of definite integrals and evaluation

of definite integrals.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 7 Exercises |
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Exercise 7.1 |

Exercise 7.2 |

Exercise 7.3 |

Exercise 7.4 |

Exercise 7.5 |

Exercise 7.6 |

Exercise 7.7 |

Exercise 7.8 |

Exercise 7.9 |

Exercise 7.10 |

Exercise 7.11 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 8 Applications of Integrals – Term II

In Chapter 8 of NCERT textbook, we continue the discussions about integrals starting with definition, area under simple curves, area of the region bounded by a curve and a line, area between two curves and miscellaneous examples. From the below-given links, students can access the exercises with solutions explaining the concepts from this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 8 Applications of Integrals for Second Term:*

Applications in finding the area under simple curves, especially lines, parabolas; area of circles /ellipses

(in standard form only) (the region should be clearly identifiable).

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 8 Exercises |
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Exercise 8.1 |

Exercise 8.2 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 9 Differential Equations – Term II

In this chapter, students concentrate on the definition of differential equations, basic concepts related to differential equations, degree of a differential equation, order of a differential equation, general and particular solutions of a differential equation, formation of a differential equation whose general solution is given, procedure to form a differential equation that will represent a given family of curves, methods of solving first order, first degree differential equations, differential equations with variable separable, homogeneous differential equations, linear differential equations, procedure involved to solve first order linear differential equations and miscellaneous examples. Solutions to the exercises from the chapter can be accessed from here.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 9 Differential Equations for Second Term:*

Definition, order and degree, general and particular solutions of a differential equation. Solution of differential equations by method of separation of variables, solutions of homogeneous differential equations of first order and first degree of the type: 𝑑𝑦/𝑑𝑥 = 𝑓(y/x). Solutions of linear differential equation of the type:

dy/dx + py = q, where p and q are functions of x or constant

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 9 Exercises |
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Exercise 9.1 |

Exercise 9.2 |

Exercise 9.3 |

Exercise 9.4 |

Exercise 9.5 |

Exercise 9.6 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 10 Vector Algebra – Term II

In this chapter, students are introduced to the vector algebra. The concepts in this chapter cover how to find position vector, some basic concepts related to vector algebra, direction cosines, types of vectors such as zero vector, unit vector, collinear vector, equal vector, negative of a vector, addition of vectors, properties of vector addition, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, components of a vector, vector joining two points, section formula, product of two vectors, scalar or dot product of two vectors, properties of scalar product, projection of a vector on a line, vector or cross product of two vectors and miscellaneous examples. From the below given links, students can access the exercises with solutions explaining the concepts from this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 10 Vector Algebra for Second Term:*

Vectors and scalars, magnitude and direction of a vector. Direction cosines and direction ratios of a vector. Types of vectors (equal, unit, zero, parallel and collinear vectors), position vector of a point, negative of a vector, components of a vector, addition of vectors, multiplication of a vector by a scalar, position vector of a point dividing a line segment in a given ratio. Definition, Geometrical Interpretation, properties and application of scalar (dot) product of vectors, vector (cross) product of vectors.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 10 Exercises |
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Exercise 10.1 |

Exercise 10.2 |

Exercise 10.3 |

Exercise 10.4 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 11 Three Dimensional Geometry – Term II

Chapter 11 of NCERT Class 12 Maths constitutes topics related to three dimensional geometry, direction cosines and direction ratios of a line, relation between the direction cosines of a line, direction cosines of a line passing through two points, equation of a line in space, equation of a line through a given point and parallel to a given vector, derivation of cartesian form from vector form, equation of a line passing through two given points, angle between two lines, shortest distance between two lines, distance between two skew lines, distance between two parallel lines, plane in cartesian form, equation of a plane in a normal form, equation of a plane perpendicular to a given vector and passing through a given point, equation of a plane passing through three non collinear points, intercept form of the equation of a plane, plane passing through the intersection of two given planes, coplanarity of two lines, angle between two planes, distance of a point from a plane, angle between a line and a plane and miscellaneous examples. Below we have listed links to the solutions for the exercises from this chapter.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 11 Three Dimensional Geometry for Second Term:*

Direction cosines and direction ratios of a line joining two points. Cartesian equation and vector equation of a line, coplanar and skew lines, shortest distance between two lines. Cartesian and vector equation of a plane. Distance of a point from a plane.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 11 Exercises |
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Exercise 11.1 |

Exercise 11.2 |

Exercise 11.3 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 12 Linear Programming – Term I

In this chapter, students are introduced to linear programming. The concepts covered in this chapter are linear programming problem and its mathematical formulation, mathematical formulation of the problem, graphical method of solving linear programming problems, different types of linear programming problems with miscellaneous examples. students can find the exercises explaining these concepts properly with solutions.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 12 Linear Programming for First Term:*

Introduction, related terminology such as constraints, objective function, optimization, different types of linear programming (L.P.) problems. Graphical method of solution for problems in two variables, feasible and infeasible regions (bounded), feasible and infeasible solutions, optimal feasible solutions (up to three non-trivial constraints).

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 12 Exercises |
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Exercise 12.1 |

Exercise 12.2 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### Chapter 13 Probability – Term II

This chapter deals with probability. By reviewing the basic facts and formulae studied earlier in Class 11, we shall implement those formulas again in this chapter along with the advance concepts mentioned, i.e. conditional probability, properties of conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, multiplication rule of probability for more than two events, independent events, Baye’s theorem, partition of a sample space, theorem on total probability, random variables and its probability distributions, probability distribution of random variable, mean of random variable, variance of random variable, Bernoulli trials and binomial distribution with miscellaneous examples. We have compiled here the solutions to exercises from this chapter, which have explained the concept thoroughly.

*Topics Covered in Class 12 Maths Chapter 13 Probability for Second Term:*

Conditional probability, multiplication theorem on probability, independent events, total probability, Bayes’ theorem, Random variable and its probability distribution.

Maths Class 12 NCERT Solutions Chapter 13 Exercises |
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Exercise 13.1 |

Exercise 13.2 |

Exercise 13.3 |

Exercise 13.4 |

Exercise 13.5 |

Miscellaneous Exercise |

### CBSE Class 12 Maths Unit wise weightage for First Term

No. |
Units |
Marks |

I | Relations and Functions | 08 |

II | Algebra | 10 |

III | Calculus | 17 |

V | Linear Programming | 05 |

Total | 40 | |

Internal Assessment | 10 | |

Total | 50 |

#### Internal Assessment Class 12 Term I

Internal Assessment |
Marks |

Periodic Tests | 05 Marks |

Mathematics Activities: Activity file record +Term end assessment of one activity & Viva | 05 Marks |

Total Marks |
10 Marks |

### CBSE Class 12 Maths Unit wise weightage for Second Term

Unit |
Unit Name |
Marks |

III | Calculus | 18 |

IV | Vectors and Three-Dimensional Geometry | 14 |

VI | Probability | 08 |

Total | 40 | |

Internal Assessment | 10 | |

Total | 50 |

#### Internal Assessment Class 12 Term II

Internal Assessment |
Marks |

Periodic Tests | 05 Marks |

Mathematics Activities: Activity file record +Term end assessment of one activity & Viva | 05 Marks |

Total Marks |
10 Marks |

## NCERT Solutions Class 12 Maths Chapter 1 to 13

12 Class Maths NCERT Solutions acts as a vital tool for students in their exam preparation and home assignments. Maths plays a vital role in the success of students in Class 12 boards and competitive exams. These **NCERT Class 12 maths solutions** can be your best education support for board exam preparations. It’s difficult to score in Mathematics simply by reading and memorizing the formulae. Instead, practise is the perfect method to succeed. Learning from BYJU’S NCERT solutions will help students of Class 12 to squeeze conceptual meaning out of every problem quite effectively. CBSE Class 12th NCERT Maths Solutions provides in-depth answers to all the problems covered in the syllabus. All the above-mentioned chapters are equally important and can be mastered with consistent practice and hard work. The topics like probability, calculus, coordinate geometry, trigonometry are easy and with proper practice, students can easily score good marks from these units. We have also provided solved examples at the end of every chapter to make concepts clear to our readers.

#### Key Features of CBSE Class 12 Maths NCERT Solutions

- Students can easily practise and revise concepts by referring to these solutions.
- It saves your time by providing all the necessary concepts and formulae in a proper sequence.
- These CBSE Class
**12 Maths NCERT Solutions**contain important tips, useful for answering typical questions accurately. - These solutions are extremely helpful for quick revisions during examinations.

Students are advised to follow the NCERT Class 12 books and solutions on a regular basis to get in-depth knowledge about all the concepts covered in the syllabus.