Class 12 Economics provides a wide range of concepts and advanced information regarding the subject which includes all the questions provided in the CBSE Class 11 Economics Syllabus.
Economics concentrates on how governments, business, households, societies and individuals make choices about when, where and how to use their natural resources at its best. It is a study that deals with many abstract and ideal blueprints to study the action and foretell how institutions will acknowledge to given changes in fiscal policies and market conditions among other factors.
Economics for class 12 is an enhanced level of class 11. In class 11 we had studied the basic fundamental aspects of the subject. And, in class 12 it is a progressed degree of concepts.
CLASS – XII (2020-21)
Theory: 80 Marks
Project: 20 Marks
|Part A||Introductory Macroeconomics|
|National Income and Related Aggregates||10||23|
|Money and Banking||6||08|
|Determination of Income and Employment||12||22|
|Government Budget and the Economy||6||15|
|Balance of Payments||6||07|
|Part B||Indian Economic Development|
|Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991||12||28|
|Current Challenges facing Indian Economy||22||35|
|Development Experience of India – A Comparison with Neighbours||06||12|
|Theory Paper (40+40 = 80 Marks)||40||75|
|Part C||Project Work||20||15|
Part A: Introductory Macroeconomics
Unit 1: National Income and Related Aggregates – 28 Periods
What is Macroeconomics?
Basic concepts in macroeconomics: consumption goods, capital goods, final goods, intermediate goods; stocks and flows; gross investment and depreciation.
Circular flow of income (two sector model); Methods of calculating National Income –
Value Added or Product method, Expenditure method, Income method.
Aggregates related to National Income:
Gross National Product (GNP), Net National Product (NNP), Gross Domestic Product
(GDP) and Net Domestic Product (NDP) – at market price, at factor cost; Real and Nominal GDP.
GDP and Welfare
Unit 2: Money and Banking – 15 Periods
Money – meaning and supply of money – Currency held by the public and net demand deposits held by commercial banks.
Money creation by the commercial banking system.
Central bank and its functions (example of the Reserve Bank of India): Bank of issue,
Govt. Bank, Banker’s Bank, Control of Credit through Bank Rate, CRR, SLR, Repo Rate and Reverse Repo Rate, Open Market Operations, Margin requirement.
Unit 3: Determination of Income and Employment – 27 Periods
Aggregate demand and its components.
Propensity to consume and propensity to save (average and marginal).
Short-run equilibrium output; investment multiplier and its mechanism.
Meaning of full employment and involuntary unemployment.
Problems of excess demand and deficient demand; measures to correct them – changes in government spending, taxes and money supply.
Unit 4: Government Budget and the Economy – 15 Periods
Government budget – meaning, objectives and components.
Classification of receipts – revenue receipts and capital receipts; classification of expenditure – revenue expenditure and capital expenditure.
Measures of government deficit – revenue deficit, fiscal deficit, primary deficit their meaning.
Unit 5: Balance of Payments – 15 Periods
Balance of payments account – meaning and components; balance of payments deficit meaning.
Foreign exchange rate – meaning of fixed and flexible rates and managed floating.
Determination of exchange rate in a free market.
Part B: Indian Economic Development
Unit 6: Development Experience (1947-90) and Economic Reforms since 1991: – 28 Periods
A brief introduction of the state of Indian economy on the eve of independence.
Indian economic system and common goals of Five Year Plans.
Main features, problems and policies of agriculture (institutional aspects and new agricultural strategy), industry (IPR 1956; SSI – role & importance) and foreign trade.
Economic Reforms since 1991:
Features and appraisals of liberalisation, globalisation and privatisation (LPG policy);
Concepts of demonetization and GST
Unit 7: Current challenges facing Indian Economy – 60 Periods
Poverty- absolute and relative; Main programmes for poverty alleviation: A critical assessment;
Human Capital Formation: How people become resource; Role of human capital in economic development; Growth of Education Sector in India
Rural development: Key issues – credit and marketing – role of cooperatives; agricultural diversification; alternative farming – organic farming
Employment: Growth and changes in work force participation rate in formal and informal sectors; problems and policies
Infrastructure: Meaning and Types: Case Studies: Energy and Health: Problems and
Policies- A critical assessment;
Sustainable Economic Development: Meaning, Effects of Economic Development on Resources and Environment, including global warming
Unit 8: Development Experience of India: 12 Periods
A comparison with neighbours
India and Pakistan
India and China
Issues: economic growth, population, sectoral development and other Human
Part C: Project in Economics 20 Periods
1. Statistics for Economics, NCERT
2. Indian Economic Development, NCERT
3. Introductory Microeconomics, NCERT
4. Macroeconomics, NCERT
5. Supplementary Reading Material in Economics, CBSE
Note: The above publications are also available in Hindi Medium.
Suggested Question Paper Design
Economics (Code No. 030)
Class XII (2020-21)
March 2021 Examination
Duration: 3 hrs.
|SN||Typology of Questions||Marks||Percentage|
|1.||Remembering and Understanding: Exhibit memory of previously learned material by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts, and answers. Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas||44||55%|
|2.||Applying: Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way.||18||22.5%|
|3.||Analysing, Evaluating and Creating: Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations. Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas, or quality of work based on a set of criteria. Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions.||18||22.5%|
Guidelines for Project Work in Economics (Class XI and XII)
The objectives of the project work are to enable learners to:
- probe deeper into theoretical concepts learnt in classes XI and XII
- analyse and evaluate real world economic scenarios using theoretical constructs and arguments
- demonstrate the learning of economic theory
- follow up aspects of economics in which learners have interest
- develop the communication skills to argue logically
The expectations of the project work are that:
- learners will complete only ONE project in each academic session
- project should be of 3,500-4,000 words (excluding diagrams & graphs), preferably hand-written
- it will be an independent, self-directed piece of study
Role of the teacher:
The teacher plays a critical role in developing thinking skills of the learners. A teacher should:
- help each learner select the topic based on recently published extracts from the news media, government policies, RBI bulletin, NITI Aayog reports, IMF/World Bank reports etc., after detailed discussions and deliberations of the topic
- play the role of a facilitator and supervisor to monitor the project work of the learner through periodic discussions
- guide the research work in terms of sources for the relevant data
- educate learner about plagiarism and the importance of quoting the source of the information to ensure authenticity of research work
- prepare the learner for the presentation of the project work
- arrange a presentation of the project file
Scope of the project:
Learners may work upon the following lines as a suggested flow chart:
Choose a title/topic
Collection of the research material/data
Organization of material/data
Analysing the material/data for conclusion
Draw the relevant conclusion
Presentation of the Project Work
- Introduction of topic/title
- Identifying the causes, consequences and/or remedies
- Various stakeholders and effect on each of them
- Advantages and disadvantages of situations or issues identified
- Short-term and long-term implications of economic strategies suggested in the course of research
- Validity, reliability, appropriateness and relevance of data used for research work and for presentation in the project file
- Presentation and writing that is succinct and coherent in project file
- Citation of the materials referred to, in the file in footnotes, resources section, bibliography etc.
Mode of presentation/submission of the Project:
At the end of the stipulated term, each learner will present the research work in the Project File to the External and Internal examiner. The questions should be asked from the Research Work/ Project File of the learner. The Internal Examiner should ensure that the study submitted by the learner is his/her own original work. In case of any doubt, authenticity should be checked and verified.
Marking Scheme :
Marks are suggested to be given as –
|S. No.||Heading||Marks Allotted|
|1.||Relevance of the topic||3|
|2.||Knowledge Content/Research Work||6|
Suggestive List of Projects:
- Effect on PPC due to various government policies
- Invisible Hand (Adam Smith)
- Opportunity Cost as an Economic Tool (taking real life situations)
- Effect of Price Change on a Substitute Good (taking prices from real life visiting local market)
- Effect on equilibrium Prices in Local Market (taking real life situation or recent news)
- Effect of Price Change on a Complementary Good (taking prices from real life visiting local market)
- Solar Energy, a Cost Effective Comparison with Conventional Energy Sources
- Bumper Production- Boon or Bane for the Farmer
- Any other newspaper article and its evaluation on basis of economic principles
- Any other topic
- Micro and Small Scale Industries x Food Supply Channel in India
- Contemporary Employment situation in India x Disinvestment policy of the government
- Goods and Services Tax Act and its Impact on GDP
- Health Expenditure (of any state)
- Human Development Index x Inclusive Growth Strategy
- Self-help group x Trends in Credit availability in India
- Monetary policy committee and its functions x Role of RBI in Control of Credit
- Government Budget & its Components x Trends in budgetary condition of India
- Exchange Rate determination – Methods and Techniques
- Currency War – reasons and repercussions
- Livestock – Backbone of Rural India x Alternate fuel – types and importance
- Sarwa Siksha Abhiyan – Cost Ratio Benefits x Golden Quadrilateral- Cost ratio benefit
- Minimum Support Prices x Relation between Stock Price Index and Economic Health of Nation
- Waste Management in India – Need of the hour
- Minimum Wage Rate – approach and Application
- Digital India- Step towards the future x Rain Water Harvesting – a solution to water crises
- Vertical Farming – an alternate way x Silk Route- Revival of the past
- Make in India – The way ahead x Bumper Production- Boon or Bane for the farmer
- Rise of Concrete Jungle- Trend Analysis x Organic Farming – Back to the Nature
- Any other newspaper article and its evaluation on basis of economic principles
- Any other topic
Class 12 Economics provides a broad degree of illustrative examples; which helps the students to comprehend and learn quickly. The above mentioned is the syllabus for class 12 Economics. For more solutions and study materials of class 12 Economics visit BYJU’S or download the app for more information and the best learning experience.
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