Download Chapter wise NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology is one of the best learning guides students can use for their exam preparation. It covers important questions with comprehensive answers. Furthermore, all solutions are presented in an easy-to-understand format.
Biology NCERT Solutions Class 11 Chapterwise
Typically, you might just read a concept and try to memorise it. You might not even grasp the topic, and yet, you have to memorise it because it is a crucial part of your exam. This is where these solutions come into the picture – the prescribed answers are reconstituted into a language that is simple to understand and easy to remember. The content is designed by a team of highly qualified professionals that analyse the average mental competency of students in Class 11. This translates to content which is tailor-made for students, making it easy to gain an in-depth insight into the subject.
Download Class 11 NCERT solutions for Biology to kick-start your exam preparations.
NCERT Solutions Class 11 Biology
NCERT Solutions class 11 Biology is a valuable resource not just from the point of class 11 examination, but also from the point of entrance exams like NEET, JEE, medical entrance exams, and various other competitive exams. Our experts at BYJU’S have created these solutions to help students to grasp maximum information with minimal mental strain.
It includes answers elaborated in a relatively simple language. Students can easily access topic wise Class 11 biology NCERT Solutions of every Chapter and unit covered in the biology textbooks. These solutions explain important concepts such as biological classification, animal and plant kingdoms, morphology, structural Organization, biomolecules, cell division, transport in plants, nutrition, photosynthesis, and more. NCERT Solutions Class 11 biology pdf is also provided with the study materials, so that students can access content offline.
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Chapter 1: The Living World
This chapter elaborates fundamental concepts such as “What is Living?” Diversity in the Living World, Taxonomic Categories, Taxonomical Aids and more. The living world is rich in variety. Millions of plant and animal species have been identified and described till date, but countless more remain yet to be discovered. The taxonomic studies of various species of plants and animals are useful in agriculture, forestry, industry and in general for knowing our resources and their diversity. Taxonomists have developed a variety of taxonomic aids to facilitate identification, naming and classification of organisms.
Chapter 2: Biological Classification
In this chapter, we will study characteristics of Kingdoms Monera, Protista and Fungi of the Whittaker system of classification. The Kingdoms Plantae and Animalia, commonly referred to as plant and animal kingdoms, respectively, will be dealt with separately in Chapters 3 and 4. You will also study about Kingdom Monera, Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, Kingdom Animalia, Viruses, Viroids and Lichens.
Chapter 3: Plant Kingdom
In the previous chapter, we looked at the broad classification of living organisms under the system proposed by Whittaker (1969) wherein he suggested the Five Kingdom classification viz. Monera, Protista, Fungi, Animalia and Plantae. In this chapter, we will delve into detail with further classification within the Kingdom Plantae or the ‘plant kingdom’. Also, you will get to learn concepts such as Algae, Bryophytes, Pteridophytes, Gymnosperms, Angiosperms, Plant Life Cycles and Alternation of Generations.
Chapter 4: Animal Kingdom
When we look around, we observe different animals with different structures and forms. Over a million species of animals have been described until now, the need for classification becomes all the more important. The classification also helps in assigning a systematic position to newly described species. It also teaches other topics such as Basis of Classification, Classification of Animals and more.
Chapter 5: Morphology of Flowering Plants
In chapters 2 and 3, we talked about the classification of plants based on morphological and other characteristics. For any successful attempt at classification and at understanding any higher plant (or for that matter any living organism), we need to know standard technical terms and standard definitions. We also need to know about the possible variations in different parts, found as adaptations of the plants to their environment, e.g., adaptions to various habitats, for protection, climbing, storage. It also explains topics such as the root, stem, leaf, inflorescence, flower, fruit, seed, semi-technical description of a typical flowering plant, description of some important families and more.
Chapter 6: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
This chapter introduces the internal structure and functional organisation of higher plants. Study of the internal structure of plants is called anatomy. Plants have cells as their basic unit, cells are organised into tissues, and in turn, the tissues are organised into various parts of the plant. Within angiosperms, the monocots and dicots are anatomically different. Internal structures also show adaptations to diverse environments. It includes topics such as The Tissues, The Tissue System, Anatomy of Dicotyledonous and Monocotyledonous Plants, Secondary Growth and more.
Chapter 7: Structural Organisation in Animals
In the preceding chapters, we came across a large variety of organisms, both unicellular and multicellular, of the animal kingdom. In unicellular organisms, all functions like digestion, respiration and reproduction are performed by a single cell. In the complex body of multicellular animals, the same basic functions are carried out by different groups of cells in a well-organised manner. All complex animals consist of only four basic types of tissues. These tissues are organised in specific locations to form organs – such as the stomach, lung, heart and kidney.
Chapter 8: Cell The Unit of Life
When you look around, you see both living and non-living things. You must have asked yourself – “What is it that makes an organism living?” or, “What is it that an inanimate object does not have which a living thing has?” The answer to this is the presence of the basic unit of life – the cell in all living organisms. All organisms are composed of cells. Some are composed of a single cell and are called unicellular organisms. In contrast, others, like us, are composed of many cells and are called multicellular organisms.
Chapter 9: Biomolecules
There is a wide diversity in living organisms in our biosphere. A few other topics included in this chapter are How to Analyse Chemical Composition? Primary and Secondary Metabolites, Biomacromolecules, Proteins, Polysaccharides, Nucleic Acids, Structure of Proteins, Nature of Bond Linking Monomers in a Polymer, Dynamic State of Body Constituents – Concept of Metabolism, Metabolic Basis for Living, The Living State, Enzymes.
Chapter 10: Cell Cycle and Cell Division
Growth and reproduction are characteristics of cells, indeed of all living organisms. All cells reproduce by dividing into two, with each parental cell giving rise to two daughter cells each time they divide. These newly formed daughter cells can themselves grow and divide, giving rise to a new cell population that is formed by the growth and division of a single parental cell and its progeny. In other words, such cycles of growth and division allow a single cell to form a structure consisting of millions of cells. Other subtopics mentioned in the chapter are Cell Cycle, M Phase, Significance of Mitosis, Meiosis, Significance of Meiosis.
Chapter 11: Transport in Plants
Topics in this chapter include Means of Transport, Plant-Water Relations, Long Distance Transport of Water, Transpiration, Uptake and Transport of Mineral Nutrients, Phloem, Transport: Flow from Source to Sink. Plants obtain a variety of inorganic elements (ions) and salts from their surroundings, especially from water and soil. In higher plants, there is a vascular system comprising of xylem and phloem, responsible for translocation. Phloem is responsible for transport of food (primarily) sucrose from the source to the sink. The translocation in phloem is explained by the pressure-flow hypothesis.
Chapter 12: Mineral Nutrition
This chapter focuses mainly on inorganic plant nutrition, wherein we will study the methods to identify elements essential to the growth and development of plants and the criteria for establishing the essentiality. We will also study the role of the essential elements, their major deficiency symptoms and the mechanism of absorption of these essential elements. The chapter also provides a brief introduction to the significance and the mechanism of biological nitrogen fixation.
Chapter 13: Photosynthesis in Higher Plants
All animals, including human beings, depend on plants for their food. The green plants make or rather synthesise the food they need through photosynthesis and are therefore called autotrophs. Green plants carry out ‘photosynthesis’, a physicochemical process which uses light energy to drive the synthesis of organic compounds. Photosynthesis is important due to two reasons: it forms the basis for all known food chains on earth. It is also responsible for the release of oxygen into the atmosphere by green plants. This chapter focusses on the structure of the photosynthetic machinery and the various reactions that transform light energy into chemical energy.
Chapter 14: Respiration in Plants
This chapter deals with cellular respiration or the mechanism of breakdown of food materials within the cell to release energy, and the trapping of this energy for the synthesis of ATP. This chapter also elaborates topics such as “Do Plants Breathe?” Glycolysis, Fermentation, Aerobic Respiration, The Respiratory Balance Sheet, Amphibolic Pathway, Respiratory Quotient.
Chapter 15: Plant Growth and Development
We have already studied the organisation of a flowering plant in Chapter 5. In this chapter, we shall explore some of the factors which govern and control these developmental processes. These factors are both intrinsic (internal) and extrinsic (external) to the plant. Other subtopics are Growth Differentiation, Dedifferentiation and Redifferentiation, Development, Plant Growth Regulators, Photoperiodism, Vernalisation and more.
Chapter 16: Digestion and Absorption
Food is one of the basic requirements of all living organisms. The major components of our food are carbohydrates, proteins and fats. Vitamins and minerals are also required in small quantities. Food provides energy and organic materials for growth and repair of tissues. The water we take in plays an important role in metabolic processes and also prevents dehydration of the body. Biomacromolecules in food cannot be utilised by our body in their original form. They have to be broken down and converted into simple substances in the digestive system. This process of conversion of complex food substances to simple absorbable forms is called digestion and is carried out by our digestive system by mechanical and biochemical methods.
Chapter 17: Breathing and Exchange of Gases
As you have read earlier, oxygen is utilised by the organisms to indirectly break down simple molecules like glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, etc., to derive energy to perform various activities. Carbon dioxide, which is harmful, is also released during the above catabolic reactions. It is, therefore, evident that oxygen has to be continuously provided to the cells and carbon dioxide produced by the cells have to be released out. This process of exchange of oxygen from the atmosphere with carbon dioxide produced by the cells is termed as breathing. It is also known as respiration.
Chapter 18: Body Fluids and Circulation
We have learnt that all living cells have to be provided with nutrients, oxygen and other essential substances. Also, the waste or harmful substances produced have to be removed continuously for healthy functioning of tissues. Blood is the most commonly used body fluid in most of the higher organisms, including humans. Another body fluid, lymph, also helps in the transport of certain substances. In this chapter, we shall explore the composition and properties of blood and lymph (tissue fluid) and the mechanism of circulation of blood is also explained herein.
Chapter 19: Excretory Products and their Elimination
The chapter covers topics such as Human Excretory System, Urine Formation, Function of the Tubules, Mechanism of Concentration of the Filtrate, Regulation of Kidney Function, Micturition, Role of other Organs in Excretion, Disorders of the Excretory System and more.
Chapter 20: Locomotion and Movement
Movement is one of the significant features of living beings. Animals and plants exhibit a wide range of movements. Such voluntary movements are called locomotion. Walking, running, climbing, flying, and swimming are all forms of locomotory movement. Locomotory structures need not be different from those affecting other types of movements. Methods of locomotion performed by animals vary with their habitats and the demand of the situation. Locomotion is required for a variety of reasons such as finding food, shelter, mate, suitable breeding grounds, favourable climatic conditions or to escape from predators.
Chapter 21: Neural Control and Coordination
Coordination is the process through which two or more organs interact and complement the functions of one another. In our body, the neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and integrate all the activities of the organs so that they function in a synchronised fashion. In this chapter, we will learn about the neural system of human, mechanisms of neural coordination like transmission of nerve impulse, impulse conduction across a synapse and the physiology of reflex action.
Chapter 22: Chemical Coordination and integration
We have already learnt that the neural system provides point-to-point rapid coordination among organs. Neural coordination is fast but short-lived. As the nerve fibres do not innervate all cells of the body and the cellular functions need to be continuously regulated; a special kind of coordination and integration has to be provided. This function is carried out by hormones. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions in the body.
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Academically, learning about these concepts might be overwhelming due to the sheer magnitude of information in each concept. However, with these carefully crafted study tips, the experience becomes effective and interesting.
How to utilise Class 11 Biology NCERT Solutions for Board and Competitive exams?
Biology is a subject that tells us all about the natural world. Just like the other disciplines of science, it tries to explain the various phenomenon, events, or organisms with the help of observation, experimentation and documentation. Here are a few tips you need to learn to study biology.
Diagrams are a prominent part of NCERT class 11 Biology syllabus. In the exam, though, you will not have much time to draw neatly or clearly, and this, in turn, might prevent you from getting the marks you need to score well in the exam. Therefore, practise the relevant diagrams with some aspects such as shading and texturing beforehand. Doing this will make you stand out from your fellow students. Now, this might take some time to develop and get good at, but the reward is worth it.
Breaking down Information
The sheer magnitude of information might make it hard for you to remember everything. That is why you need to develop a technique called information chunking, where the information is broken down into small chunks, and this makes it easier for the student to process the information. This is very effective because the cognitive load is reduced, and this, in turn, slows down mental fatigue. How you split the information is entirely dependant on you and your abilities.
Everyone already knows this, but not everyone implements it. This technique is underrated but incredibly helpful from an examination perspective. Whenever you are attending a lecture, make sure you note down the crucial points that the teacher says. This process stimulates your thinking, and you can recall information more easily. Furthermore, this is an essential tool to use when you revise for your exam. Since you prepare these notes, you will find it easier to comprehend and recall the information than any other textbook.
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