Excretory Products and their Elimination Class 11 Notes - Chapter 19

Excretory products and their elimination class 11 notes break down the concept of how living organisms discharge their waste products. All living organisms need a source of sustenance, and consequently, undigested materials and metabolic wastes need to be expelled from the body. Because if these materials are accumulated in the body, it can be detrimental to the health of the organism.

Human Excretory System

Anatomically, the human excretory system consists of a pair of kidneys, a pair of ureters, urinary bladder and the urethra. The kidneys contain tiny, numerous structures called nephrons. These are termed as the functional unit of the kidneys and are responsible for the separation of water, filter toxins and replenish necessary elements back into the bloodstream.

Role Of Other Organs In Excretion

Besides the kidneys, other organs that help in ridding the wastes from the body. The various methods of excretion in humans can be categorized into two forms, namely:

  1. Specific
  2. Non-specific

Specific excretion mechanisms include the respiratory system, which expels metabolic waste products in the form of carbon dioxide. The alimentary canal breaks down harmful toxins and sends them to the blood and bile.

Disorders of the Excretory System

There are many potential causative factors for disorders of the excretory system. For instance, underlying illness, environmental factors, pathogenic microbes and even ingestion of certain substances can cause major functions of the excretory system to fail. Disorders can range from stones in the kidneys (called renal calculi), to much more life-threatening disorders such as chronic kidney disease.

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Practise This Question

Which of the following are the functions of a vacuole in plant/bacterial cell?