What is Inorganic Chemistry?
The word organic refers to the compounds which contain carbon atoms in it. So the branch of chemistry that deals with the study of compounds, which does not consist of carbon-hydrogen atoms in it, is called ‘Inorganic Chemistry.’
In simple words, it is opposite to that of Organic Chemistry. The substances which do not have carbon-hydrogen bonding are metals, salts, chemical substances, etc.
On this planet, there are known to exist about 100,000 Inorganic compounds. Inorganic chemistry studies the behaviour of these compounds along with their properties, their physical and chemical characteristics too. The elements of the periodic table except for carbon and hydrogen, come in the lists of Inorganic compounds.
Many of the elements are technologically important: titanium, iron, nickel and copper, for example, are used structurally and electrically. Second, the transition metals form several useful alloys, with each other and with other metallic elements.
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Meaning of Chemistry
Chemistry is the study of the substances of which matter is composed. Chemistry is heavily experimental because you can only study reductions if you totally mix substances together. Luckily, you don’t need to risk your health and safety to understand chemistry better because brave scientists already did. There are over a hundred elements that make up the matter of our world and universe. They combine to make thousands and thousands of compounds.
A chemical compound is made up of atoms of different elements joined together by a chemical bond. The bonds are so strong that the compound acts as if it were a single substance. The joined atoms form molecules and the molecules connect together to make the compound.
A chemical formula is a notation used by scientists to show the number and type of atoms present in a molecule using atomic symbols and numeric subscriptions. A chemical formula is a simple representation, in writing, of a three-dimensional molecule that exists. A chemical formula describes a substance, down to the exact atoms that make it up. There are three basic types of chemical formula, the empirical formula, the molecular formula and the structural formula.
Chapters under Inorganic Chemistry
(a) Organometallic Chemistry
Organometallic Chemistry, an interdisciplinary science in Inorganic Chemistry, has grown at a phenomenal pace during the last three to four decades. On the academic plane, efforts to elucidate the nature of bonds in the ever increasing list of exciting organometallic compounds have led to a clearer understanding of the nature and variety of chemical bonds.
Organometallic compounds are primarily used as homogeneous catalysis agents in industries. The topics covered in this book offer the readers new insights in the field of organometallic chemistry.
Organometallic chemistry is an organometallic compound study. Because many compounds without these bonds are chemically identical, an alternative may be compounds containing metallic bonds of a mostly covalent nature. Organometallic chemistry blends elements of inorganic chemistry with organic chemistry.
(b) Transition Elements
A transition element may be defined as one which possesses partially filled d-orbitals in its penultimate shell. This conceptual definition is useful as it enables us to recognize a transition element merely by looking at its electronic configuration. This definition excludes zinc, cadmium and mercury from the transition elements as they do not have a partially filled d-orbital. However, they are also considered transition elements, because their properties are an extension of the properties of transition elements in inorganic chemistry. In fact, the zinc group serves as a bridge between the transition elements and the representative elements.
The most notable characteristics shared by the 24 elements concerned are that they are all metals and that most of them are hard, solid and lustrous, have high melting and boiling points and are good conductors of heat and electricity. The range in these properties is considerable; hence, the statements are comparable to the general properties of all the other elements.
(c) Coordination Chemistry
Coordination compounds found their applications long before the establishment of inorganic chemistry. A systematic investigation of structure and bonding in coordination chemistry began with the inquisitiveness of Tassaert which was extended by distinguished chemists like Wilhelm Blomstrand, Jorgensen and Alfred Werner until the end of the nineteenth century. In the events, Werner’s coordination theory became the base of modern coordination chemistry.
(d) P-Block Elements
The elements placed in group 13 to group 18 of the periodic table constitute the p-block. The properties of inorganic chemistry p block elements like that of other block elements are greatly influenced by their atomic size, ionization enthalpy, electron gain enthalpy and electronegativity. The absence of d–orbitals in the second period and presence of d- or f-orbitals in heavier elements has a significant effect on the properties of the elements and therefore, heavier p-block elements differ from their lighter congeners.
Classification of Inorganic Compounds
The Inorganic compounds are classified as:
- Acids: Acids are those compounds that dissolve in water and generate hydrogen ions or H+ Ions. Examples of acids include Hydrochloric acid, citric acid, sulphuric acid, vinegar, etc. One example of the acidic reaction is shown below-Hydrochloric acid + water → H+ + Cl
- Bases: A base is a type of substance or a compound that produces hydroxyl ions when kept in water. The bases like potassium hydroxide, calcium hydroxide, ammonia, sodium hydroxide produce OH- ions when dissolved in water. Potassium Hydroxide + H2O → K+ + OH–
- Salts: As you might be familiar with the word ‘Salt’. The substances obtained as a result of the reaction between an acid and a base are called Salts. The table salt of sodium hydroxide is one of the typical examples of salts.
- Oxides: The compounds which consist of one oxygen atom called Oxides.
Types of Reactions and Examples of Inorganic compounds
There are about four types of chemical reactions in Inorganic chemistry namely combination, decomposition, single displacement and double displacement reactions.
- Combination Reactions: As it is in the name ‘Combination’, here two or more substances combine to form a product which is called a Combination reaction. For example: Barium + F2 → BaF2
- Decomposition Reaction: It is a type of reaction where a single element splits up or decomposes into two products. For example: FeS → Fe + S
- Single Displacement Reactions: A reaction where a single atom of one element replaces another atom of one more element. For example: Zn (s) + CuSO4 (aq) → Cu (s) + ZnSO4 (aq)
- Double Displacement Reactions: This type of reaction is also called ‘metathesis reactions’. Here two elements of two different compounds displace each other to form two new compounds. For example:CaCl2 (aq) + 2AgNO3 (aq) → Ca(NO3)2 (aq) + 2 AgCl (s)
Applications of Inorganic Chemistry
Inorganic chemistry finds its high number of applications in various fields such as Biology, chemical, engineering, etc
- It is applied in the field of medicine and also in healthcare facilities.
- The most common application is the use of common salt or the compound Sodium hydroxide in our daily lives.
- Baking soda is used in the preparation of cakes and other foodstuffs.
- Many inorganic compounds are utilized in ceramic industries.
- In the electrical field, it is applied to the electric circuits as silicon in computers, etc.
Related Topics in Inorganic Chemistry
- Organometallic Chemistry
- Transition Elements
- Coordination Number
- P-Block Elements
- s- Block Elements
- Acid , Bases and Salts
- Crystal Field Theory (CFT)
- Valence Bond Theory
- Chemical Bonding
Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs
What is the main difference between organic and inorganic chemistry?
Organic chemistry is defined as the study of carbon-containing compounds, inorganic chemistry is the study of the remaining (i.e., not carbon-containing) subset of compounds.
Why is it called inorganic?
“Inorganic” chemistry historically meant the chemistry of “non-living” things; and these were non-carbon based molecules and ions.
Why is inorganic chemistry important?
Catalysts, coatings, fuels, surfactants, fibres, superconductors, and drugs are researched and developed using inorganic chemistry. In inorganic chemistry important chemical reactions include double displacement reactions, acid-base reactions, and redox reactions.
What is the scope of inorganic chemistry?
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the inorganic or organometallic compound synthesis, structure, and behaviour. Inorganic chemistry is used in almost every sector of the chemical industry, including catalysis, materials science, paints and pigments, surfactants, coatings, medicines, fuels, and plastics.
What is considered inorganic chemistry?
Inorganic chemistry is the study of the production of chemical compounds that do not require a carbon-hydrogen bond, reactions, and properties. Inorganic compounds can be classified as oxides, acids, bases, salts and.
What are the topics under inorganic chemistry?
Inorganic chemistry — the analysis of the synthesis, reactions, structures and properties of the compounds of the elements — comprises the chemistry of non-organic compounds and overlaps with organic chemistry in the field of organometallic chemistry, in which metals are bonded to carbon-containing ligands and molecules
What are the four types of inorganic compounds?
The following section looks at the four classes of life-critical inorganic compounds: water, salts, acids, and bases.
What are organic chemistry and inorganic chemistry?
Chemistry is an age-old science that human knowledge has grown significantly over the last 3,000 years. But it’s only in the last few centuries that scientists have made some of their greatest advances in the study of chemicals. In fact, it wasn’t until the 17th century that scientists recognized that there were two types of chemistry: organic and inorganic.
What are physical properties in chemistry?
Physical properties can be observed or measured without altering the composition of the matter. Physical properties are used for the observation and description of matter. Physical properties include: shape, texture, colour, smell, melting point, boiling point, density, solubility, polarity, and many others.
What is the field of chemistry?
Chemistry is a study of matter and the changes it undergoes, taking into account both macroscopic and microscopic details. The matter is anything that has mass and takes up space. Physical chemistry, organic chemistry, inorganic chemistry, analytical chemistry and biochemistry are the five main disciplines of chemistry.