Named Reactions

What is a Named reaction?

A Named reaction is chemical reaction which is named after the person who developed it or discovered the chemical reaction.

For students of class 11th & 12th under the science stream looking to clear competitive exams, learning certain organic chemistry name reactions mentioned in the syllabus is quite crucial. To help you learn the name reactions in organic chemistry class 12 and class 11th is why we have provided below the different organic name reactions with their mechanisms.

  1. Aldol Condensation:

    We can define aldol condensation as an organic reaction in which an enolate ion reacts with a carbonyl compound to form β-hydroxyaldehyde or β-hydroxyketone, followed by a dehydration to give a conjugated enone.

    Aldol Condensation

  2. Balz-Schiemann Reaction:

    The Balz-Schiemann Reaction is named after german scientist Günther Schiemann and Günther Balz. The reaction showcases the conversion of aryl amines to aryl fluorides. The reaction happens through diazotization after which thermal decomposition of the derived hexafluorophosphate or tetrafluoroborates.

    Balz-Schiemann Reaction

  3. Cannizzaro Reaction:

    The Cannizzaro Reaction is named after Stanislao Cannizzaro. The chemical reaction signifies the base-induced disproportionation of a non-enolizable aldehyde. An example of a Cannizzaro Reaction is given below:

    Cannizzaro Reaction

  4. Clemmensen Reduction:

    The Clemmensen Reduction reaction is named after a danish scientist, Erik Christian Clemmensen. The Clemmensen Reduction reaction shows how to reduce ketones or aldehydes to alkanes using zinc amalgam and hydrochloric acid.

    Clemmensen Reduction

  5. Etard Reaction:

    The Etard Reaction is named after a french chemist named Alexandre Léon Étard. The Etard Reaction is a chemical reaction in which an heterocyclic bound or aromatic methyl group is directly oxidized to an aldehyde using chromyl chloride. An example of an Etard reaction has been given below with its mechanism.

    Etard Reaction

  6. Finkelstein Reaction:

    The Finkelstein Reaction is named after Hans Finkelstein, a german chemist. The Finkelstein Reaction deals with the exchange of a halogen atom by a Substitution Nucleophilic Bimolecular reaction. Given below is the mechanism of a Finkelstein Reaction.

    Finkelstein Reaction

  7. Friedel – Crafts Reaction:

    Friedel – Crafts Reaction was developed by Charles Friedel and James Crafts in 1877. The Friedel – Crafts Reaction is a way of attaching substituents to an aromatic ring. Under Friedel–Crafts reaction we have:

    a)Friedel–Crafts alkylation

    b)Friedel–Crafts de-alkylation

    c)Friedel–Crafts acylation

    d)Friedel–Crafts hydroxyalkylation

    e)Friedel–Crafts sulfonylation

  8. Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis:

    Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis was discovered by a german chemist named Siegmund Gabriel. The Gabriel synthesis is a chemical reaction used to obtain primary amines from primary alkyl halides.

    Gabriel Phthalimide Synthesis

  9. Gattermann Reaction:

    The Gattermann Reaction is named after a german chemist, Ludwig Gattermann. Also known by the name, Gattermann salicylaldehyde synthesis is a chemical reaction in which aromatic compounds in the presence of a Friedel–Crafts catalyst are formylated by hydrogen cyanide. Stated below is the mechanism of Gattermann Reaction.

    Gattermann Reaction

  10. Gattermann – Koch Reaction:

    The Gattermann–Koch reaction is named after the German chemists Julius Arnold Koch and Ludwig Gattermann. In a Gattermann–Koch reaction refers to a Friedel–Crafts acylation reaction in which a Friedel–Crafts catalyst, hydrochloric acid, and carbon monoxide are used to produce aromatic aldehydes from various aromatic compounds, including derivatives of naphthalene and benzene. Below mentioned is the mechanism for a Gattermann – Koch Reaction.

    Gattermann – Koch Reaction

  11. Grignard Synthesis:

    In 1900, a french chemist, François Auguste Victor Grignard from the University of Nancy, France was awarded the discovery of the Grignard reactions and reagents. He was later awarded with a nobel prize in chemistry 12 years later for his work. A Grignard Synthesis
    Reaction is a chemical reaction in which in which vinyl, alkyl, or aryl-magnesium halides (Grignard reagents) add to a carbonyl group in an ketone or aldehyde.

  12. Kolbe’s Reaction:

    Also known by the name of Kolbe–Schmitt reaktion, the Kolbe reaction is named after Hermann Kolbe and Rudolf Schmitt. It is a chemical reaction in which is a carboxylation chemical reaction that proceeds by heating sodium phenoxide (the sodium salt of phenol) with carbon dioxide under pressure (100 atm, 125 °C), then treating the product with sulfuric acid. The final product is an aromatic hydroxy acid which is also known as salicylic acid the precursor to aspirin.

  13. Reimer- Tiemann Reaction:

    Reimer- Tiemann Reaction was discovered by Karl Reimer and Ferdinand Tiemann. They have a
    private track to test the used for the ortho-formylation of phenols. Given below is an example.

    Reimer- Tiemann Reaction

  14. Rosenmund Reduction:

    The Rosenmund reduction was named after Karl Wilhelm Rosenmund, who in 1918 reported its discovery. A hydrogenation process in which an acyl chloride is selectively reduced to an aldehyde.

    Rosenmund Reduction

  15. Sandmeyer Reaction:

    The Sandmeyer Reaction was named after Traugott Sandmeyer in 1884. Sandmeyer Reaction is a chemical reaction in which we use aryl diazonium salts to synthesize aryl halides. Sandmeyer Reaction provides a capability of performing some unique transformations to benzene such as hydroxylation, trifluoromethylation ,cyanation, and halogenation. Given below is an example of Sandmeyer Reaction.

    Sandmeyer Reaction

  16. Stephen Reaction or Stephen Reduction:

    Also known by the name, Stephen aldehyde synthesis, was discovered by Henry Stephen. This chemical reaction involves the preparation of aldehydes from nitriles using tin(II) chloride, hydrochloric acid and quenching the resulting iminium salt with water. During the synthesis, ammonium chloride is also produced. Given below is the Stephen aldehyde synthesis: Reaction mechanism.

    Stephen Reaction or Stephen Reduction

  17. Swartz Reaction:

    Swarts reaction and Finkelstein reactions are halogen exchange reactions that are associated with alkyl halides.
    RX + MF → RF+ MX

    where, RX represents alkyl chloride or alkyl bromide and MF represents metallic fluorides like AgF, Hg, 2F2, CoF2 or SbF3

  18. Williamson Synthesis:

    This a chemical reaction to implement ether synthesis discovered by Alexander Williamson in 1850. The Williamson ether synthesis is a chemical reaction for forming an ether from an organohalide and a deprotonated alcohol. Given below is the general mechanism of how the Williamson ether synthesis reaction works.

    Williamson Synthesis

  19. Wolff – Kishner Reduction:

    The Wolff – Kishner Reduction reaction was first reported by Nikolai Kischner in 1911 and Ludwig Wolff in 1912. This is a named reaction in organic chemistry involving obtaining methylene groups by converting carbonyl functionalities. Given below is the Reaction mechanism of Wolff-Kishner reduction.

    Wolff – Kishner Reduction

  20. Wurtz Reaction:

    The Wurtz reaction, named after Charles-Adolphe Wurtz, is a coupling reaction in organic chemistry, organometallic chemistry and recently inorganic main group polymers, whereby two alkyl halides are reacted with sodium metal in dry ether solution to form a higher alkane

  21. Wurtz – Fittig Reaction:

    The Wurtz–Fittig reaction is the chemical reaction of aryl halides with alkyl halides and sodium metal in the presence of dry ether to give substituted aromatic compounds

Practise This Question

The metal and non-metal that are liquid at room temperature are ____________ and __________ respectively.