Food Chemistry

food chemistry

What is food chemistry?

As the name implies, food chemistry is the branch of chemistry that deals with the chemistry behind the biochemical nature of food , their properties and how they are processed in the body. It involves the study of chemical components from proteins to carbohydrates and more. In food chemistry we learn how different processing techniques affect a certain type of food and also for ways to enhance the quality of food.

Examples of food chemistry

There are certain food technologies which we experience in our daily lives which we do not know are the results of innovations in food chemistry. Some examples are:

  • Fermentation of dairy products: Apart from natural fermentation, to speed up the process we use microorganisms which aid the process of conversion from lactose to lactic acid.
  • Fat & Sugar Substitutes: We know how fat & sugar cause different ailments, but with the help of food chemistry, chemists are coming up with substitutes which offers the same taste without the bad effects.

Components of the food we eat:


Water is a major component of almost every type of food we eat. But water also provides a place for bacterial growth which leads to food spoilage. Thus measuring the amount of water in a food item can be used to measure the shell life of an object.

The shelf life can be altered by different methods such as:

  • Refrigeration\Freezing
  • Dehydration

Percentage of water in food:

  • Meat – 50%
  • Eggs – 75%
  • Watermelon – 92%
  • Lettuce – 95%
  • Cucumber – 96%


A carbohydrate is a biomolecule which is responsible for providing energy for most organisms. They are also known as saccharides. They are found in white bread, sugars, candies, fruits, vegetables, pulses, and wholemeal pasta.

Some examples of Carbohydrates are:

Glucose, galactose, fructose, glucose, galactose, fructose,

General Formula – Cx(H2O)y



Carbohydrates can be classified as:

  • Monosaccharides
  • Disaccharides
  • Polysaccharides


The term lipids refers to non -polar compounds or water insoluble compounds of biological origin. The main functions of lipids are:

  • Storing energy
  • Signaling
  • As structural components of cell membranes

Types of lipids:

  • Fatty acids
  • Glycerolipids
  • Glycerophospholipids
  • Sphingolipids
  • Sterol lipids
  • Prenol lipids
  • Saccharolipids
  • Polyketides




Proteins play a fundamental role in the structure and functioning of a cell. Proteins in food are important for the survival and growth of a human being. They are essential building blocks of human tissue and in extreme cases serve as a fuel source. Some of the common sources of proteins through food are:

  • Meat
  • Milk
  • Eggs

Protein structure

Protein structure

Thus here we have discussed what is food chemistry, some of the components involved in food chemistry and applications of food chemistry. To learn more, register with BYJU’S.

Practise This Question

Which of the following hydride does NOT follow the Law of definite proportions?

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