Law of conservation of mass
The law of conservation of mass is often referred to as the most fundamental concept of chemistry. This was put forward by Antoine Lavoisier. The law of conservation of mass states that:
|In the process of a chemical reaction, the amount of matter involved remains the same before and after the reaction occurs.
Law of conservation of energy
The law of conservation of energy is the first basic law which concerns a thermodynamic system. Julius Robert Mayer discovered the Law of Conservation of Energy. The law states that:
|The total energy of a system is conserved given it is isolated from its surroundings.
Also known as the names of Boyle–Mariotte law or Mariotte’s law, Boyle’s law states that:
|The absolute pressure exerted by a given mass of an ideal gas is inversely proportional to the volume it occupies if the temperature and amount of gas remain unchanged within a closed system.
Also known as the law of volumes, Charles’s law is an experimental gas law that describes how gases tend to expand when heated. The law states that:
|When the pressure on a sample of a dry gas is held constant, the Kelvin temperature and the volume will be directly related.
Dalton’s law of partial pressure
Dalton’s law of partial pressures states that:
|In a mixture of non-reacting gases, the total pressure exerted by the gas mixture is equal to the sum of the partial pressures of the individual gases.
This particular law was discovered in 1811 by Amedeo Avogadro. Avogadro’s Law states that:
|Equal volumes of all gases, at the same temperature and pressure, have the same number of molecules.
Ideal Gas Law
The volume (V) occupied by n moles of any gas has a pressure (P) at a temperature (T) in Kelvin. The relationship between these variables is signifying the law is given below.
|PV = nRT
The periodic law was developed independently by Dmitri Mendeleev and Lothar Meyer in 1869. The periodic law states that:
|The physical and chemical properties of the elements recur in a systematic and predictable way when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number.
It means that when the elements are arranged in the order of their increasing atomic numbers, it is observed that the elements of similar properties recur at regular intervals or periodically. As a result of this, the elements fall into certain groups and lead to an arrangement called the modern periodic table of elements. Elements belonging to the same group have similar properties.
Laws of thermodynamics
The study of the relations between heat, work, temperature, and energy is known as thermodynamics. These laws of thermodynamics describe how the energy in a system changes and whether the system can perform useful work on its surroundings. The four laws of thermodynamics define the fundamental physical quantities that characterize thermodynamic systems at thermal equilibrium. The laws describe how these quantities behave under various circumstances and forbid certain phenomena. There are four laws of thermodynamics.
- Zeroth law of thermodynamics: T
he zeroth law of thermodynamics states that if two thermodynamic systems are each in thermal equilibrium with a third system, then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other.
- First law of thermodynamics: The first law of thermodynamics states that heat can neither be created nor destroyed, it can only be converted from one form to another.
- Second law of thermodynamics: The second law of thermodynamics states that any spontaneously occurring process will always lead to an escalation in the entropy (S) of the universe.
- Third law of thermodynamics: The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of a perfect crystal at a temperature of zero Kelvin (absolute zero) is equal to zero.
Any change in the magnetic environment of a coil of wire will cause a voltage (emf) to be “induced” in the coil. No matter how the change is produced, the voltage will be generated. This is made clear by Faraday’s Law.
Faraday’s first law of electrolysis states that
|The amount of substance liberated at an electrode is directly proportional to the quantity of electricity passed.
Faraday’s second law of electrolysis states that if the same amount of electricity is passed through different electrolytes, the masses of ions deposited at the electrodes are directly proportional to their chemical equivalents.
Henry’s law is one of the gas laws and was formulated by the British chemist, William Henry, in 1803. It states that:
|At a constant temperature, the amount of a given gas dissolved in a given type and volume of liquid is directly proportional to the partial pressure of that gas in equilibrium with that liquid.
These are just some many laws of chemistry which everyone should have an understanding of. Register with BYJU’S and download our app to learn more.