 # NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 - Sound

## NCERT Solutions Class 9 Science Chapter 12 – Free PDF Download

*According to the CBSE Syllabus 2023-24, this chapter has been renumbered as Chapter 11.

NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Chapter 12 Sound are the best resources to enhance students’ conceptual knowledge on the topic. They contain answers to the questions provided in the textbook in such a way that the students grasp them easily. NCERT Solutions are reference guides to clarify topic-related doubts.

They also contain several long, short answers, along with MCQs and important questions answered by the subject experts. Every possible attempt is made to create good quality content with all the useful information. The Chapter Sound is very important from the examination perspective. Therefore, all that is important has been compiled and presented here in the form of NCERT Solutions Class 9 Science.

The students are advised to go through the NCERT Solutions Class 9 for self-evaluation after having studied each chapter. They will thereby get to know their shortcomings and do their best to overcome them before the examinations.

## NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 – Sound

### Access Answers of Science NCERT Class 9 Chapter 12 – Sound  (All in-text and exercise questions solved)

Section 12.1 Page: 162

1. How does the sound produced by a vibrating object in a medium reach your ear?

Solution:

When an object vibrates, it necessitates the surrounding particles of the medium to vibrate. The particles that are adjacent to vibrating particles are forced to vibrate. Hence, the sound produced by a vibrating object in a medium is transferred from particle to particle till it reaches your ear.

Section 12.2 Page: 163

1. Explain how sound is produced by your school bell.

Solution:

When the school bell is hit with a hammer, it moves forward and backwards, producing compression and rarefaction due to vibrations. This is how sound is produced by the school bell.

2. Why are sound waves called mechanical waves?

Solution:

Sound waves require a medium to propagate to interact with the particles present in them. Therefore, sound waves are called mechanical waves.

3. Suppose you and your friend are on the moon. Will you be able to hear any sound produced by your friend?

Solution:

No. Sound waves require a medium to propagate. Due to the absence of an atmosphere on the moon and since sound cannot travel in a vacuum, I will not be able to hear any sound produced by my friend.

Section 12.2.3 Page: 166

1. Which wave property determines (a) loudness, (b) pitch?

Solution:

(a) Amplitude – The loudness of the sound and its amplitude is directly related to each other. The larger the amplitude, the louder the sound.

(b) Frequency – The pitch of the sound and its frequency is directly related to each other. If the pitch is high, then the frequency of sound is also high.

2. Guess which sound has a higher pitch: guitar or car horn?

Solution:

The pitch of a sound is directly proportional to its frequency. Therefore, the guitar has a higher pitch when compared to a car horn.

3. What are the wavelength, frequency, time period and amplitude of a sound wave?

Solution:

(a) Wavelength – Wavelength can be defined as the distance between two consecutive rarefactions or two consecutive compressions. The SI unit of wavelength is metre (m).

(b) Frequency – Frequency is defined as the number of oscillations per second. The SI unit of frequency is hertz (Hz).

(c) Amplitude – Amplitude can be defined as the maximum height reached by the trough or crest of a sound wave.

(d) Time period – The time period is defined as the time required to produce one complete cycle of a sound wave.

4. How are the wavelength and frequency of a sound wave related to its speed?

Solution:

Wavelength, speed, and frequency are related in the following way:

Speed = Wavelength x Frequency

v = λ ν

5. Calculate the wavelength of a sound wave whose frequency is 220 Hz and speed is 440 m/s in a given medium.

Solution:

Given that,

Frequency of sound wave = 220 Hz

Speed of sound wave = 440 m/s

Calculate wavelength.

We know that

Speed = Wavelength × Frequency

v = λ ν

440 = Wavelength × 220

Wavelength = 440/220

Wavelength = 2

Therefore, the wavelength of the sound wave = 2 metres

6. A person is listening to a tone of 500 Hz, sitting at a distance of 450 m from the source of the sound. What is the time interval between successive compressions from the source?

Solution:

The time interval between successive compressions from the source is equal to the time period, and the time period is reciprocal to the frequency. Therefore, it can be calculated as follows:

T= 1/F

T= 1/500

T = 0.002 s

7. Distinguish between loudness and intensity of sound.

Solution:

The amount of sound energy passing through an area every second is called the intensity of a sound wave. Loudness is defined by its amplitude.

#### Section 12.2.4 Page: 167

1. In which of the three media, air, water or iron, does sound travel the fastest at a particular temperature?

Solution:

Sound travels faster in solids when compared to any other medium. Therefore, at a particular temperature, sound travels fastest in iron and slowest in gas.

#### Section 12.3.2 Page: 168

1. An echo is heard in 3 s. What is the distance of the reflecting surface from the source, given that the speed of sound is 342 ms-1?

Solution:

Speed of sound (v) = 342 ms-1

Echo returns in time (t) = 3 s

Distance travelled by sound = v × t = 342 × 3 = 1026 m

In the given interval of time, sound must travel a distance which is twice the distance between the reflecting surface and the source.

Therefore, the distance of the reflecting surface from the source =1026/2 = 513 m

#### Section 12.3.3 Page: 169

1. Why are the ceilings of concert halls curved?

Solution:

The ceilings of concert halls are curved to spread sound uniformly in all directions after reflecting from the walls.

#### Section 12.4 Page: 170

1. What is the audible range of the average human ear?

Solution:

20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. Any sound less than 20 Hz or greater than 20,000 Hz frequency is not audible to human ears.

2. What is the range of frequencies associated with (a) Infrasound? (b) Ultrasound?

Solution:

(a) 20 Hz

(b) 20,000 Hz

#### Section 12.5.1 Page: 172

1. A submarine emits a sonar pulse, which returns from an underwater cliff in 1.02 s. If the speed of sound in salt water is 1531 m/s, how far away is the cliff?

Solution:

Time (t) taken by the sonar pulse to return = 1.02 s

Speed (v) of sound in salt water = 1531 m s-1

Distance travelled by sonar pulse = Speed of sound × Time taken

= 1531 x 1.02 = 1561.62 m

Distance of the cliff from the submarine = (Total distance travelled by sonar pulse) / 2

= 1561.62 / 2

= 780.81 m.

#### Exercise Questions Page: 174

1. What is sound, and how is it produced?

Solution:

Sound is produced due to vibrations. When a body vibrates, it forces the adjacent particles of the medium to vibrate. This results in a disturbance in the medium, which travels as waves and reaches the ear. Hence, the sound is produced.

2. Describe, with the help of a diagram, how compressions and rarefactions are produced in the air near a source of the sound.

Solution:

When the school bell is hit with a hammer, it moves forward and backwards, producing compression and rarefaction due to vibrations. When it moves forward, it creates high pressure in its surrounding area. This high-pressure region is known as compression. When it moves backwards, it creates a low-pressure region in its surrounding. This region is called rarefaction. 3. Cite an experiment to show that sound needs a material medium for its propagation.

Solution:

Take an electric bell and hang it inside an empty bell jar which is fitted with a vacuum pump (as shown in the figure below). Initially, one can hear the sound of the ringing bell. Now, pump out some air from the bell jar using the vacuum pump. You will realise that the sound of the ringing bell decreases. If you keep on pumping the air out of the bell jar, then the glass jar will be devoid of any air after some time. Now, try to ring the bell. No sound is heard, but you can see the bell prong is still vibrating. When there is no air present in the bell jar, a vacuum is produced. Sound cannot travel through a vacuum. Therefore, this experiment shows that sound needs a material medium for its propagation.

4. Why is a sound wave called a longitudinal wave?

Solution:

The vibration of the medium that travels parallel to the direction of the wave or along in the direction of the wave is called a longitudinal wave. The direction of particles of the medium vibrates parallel to the direction of the propagation of disturbance. Therefore, a sound wave is called a longitudinal wave.

5. Which characteristics of the sound help you to identify your friend by his voice while sitting with others in a dark room?

Solution:

Quality of sound is a characteristic that helps us identify the voice of a particular person. Two people may have the same pitch and loudness, but their qualities will be different.

6. Flash and thunder are produced simultaneously. But thunder is heard a few seconds after the flash is seen. Why?

Solution:

The speed of sound is 344 m/s, whereas the speed of light is 3 × 108 m/s. The speed of light is less when compared to that of light. Due to this reason, thunder takes more time to reach the Earth as compared to light speed, which is faster. Hence, lightning is seen before whenever we hear thunder.

7. A person has a hearing range from 20 Hz to 20 kHz. What are the typical wavelengths of sound waves in air corresponding to these two frequencies? Take the speed of sound in air as 344 m s−1.

Solution:

For sound waves,

Speed = Wavelength × frequency

v = λ × v

Speed of sound wave in air = 344 m/s

(a) For v = 20 Hz

λ1 = v/v1 = 344/20 = 17.2 m

(b) For v2 = 20,000 Hz

λ2 = v/v2 = 344/20,000 = 0.0172 m

Therefore, for human beings, the hearing wavelength is in the range of 0.0172 m to 17.2 m.

8. Two children are at opposite ends of an aluminium rod. One strikes the end of the rod with a stone. Find the ratio of times taken by the sound wave in the air and in aluminium to reach the second child.

Solution:

Consider the length of the aluminium rod = d

Speed of sound wave at 25° C, V Al = 6420 ms-1

Time taken to reach the other end is,

T Al = d/ (V Al) = d/6420

Speed of sound in air, V air = 346 ms-1

Time taken by sound to each other end is,

T air = d/ (V air) = d/346

Therefore, the ratio of time taken by sound in aluminium and air is,

T air / t Al = 6420 / 346 = 18.55

9. The frequency of a source of sound is 100 Hz. How many times does it vibrate in a minute?

Solution:

Frequency = (Number of oscillations) / Total time

Number of oscillations = Frequency × Total time

Given,

Frequency of sound = 100 Hz

Total time = 1 min (1 min = 60 s)

Number of oscillations or vibrations = 100 × 60 = 6000

The source vibrates 6000 times in a minute and produces a frequency of 100 Hz.

10. Does sound follow the same laws of reflection as light does? Explain.

Solution:

Yes. Sound follows the same laws of reflection as light. The reflected sound wave and the incident sound wave make an equal angle with the normal to the surface at the point of incidence. Also, the reflected sound wave, the normal to the point of incidence, and the incident sound wave all lie in the same plane.

11. When a sound is reflected from a distant object, an echo is produced. Let the distance between the reflecting surface and the source of sound production remains the same. Do you hear an echo sound on a hotter day?

Solution:

An echo is heard when the time interval between the reflected sound and the original sound is at least 0.1 seconds. As the temperature increases, the speed of sound in a medium also increases. On a hotter day, the time interval between the reflected and original sound will decrease, and an echo is audible only if the time interval between the reflected sound and the original sound is greater than 0.1 s.

12. Give two practical applications of the reflection of sound waves.

Solution:

(i) Reflection of sound is used to measure the speed and distance of underwater objects. This method is called SONAR.

(ii) Working of a stethoscope – The sound of a patient’s heartbeat reaches the doctor’s ear through multiple reflections of sound.

13. A stone is dropped from the top of a tower 500 m high into a pond of water at the base of the tower. When is the splash heard at the top? Given, g = 10 m s−2 and speed of sound = 340 m s−1.

Solution:

Height (s) of tower = 500 m

Velocity (v) of sound = 340 m s−1

Acceleration (g) due to gravity = 10 m s−1

Initial velocity (u) of the stone = 0

Time (t1) taken by the stone to fall to the tower base:

As per the second equation of motion,

s= ut1 + (½) g (t1)2

500 = 0 x t1 + (½) 10 (t1)2

(t1)2 = 100

t1 = 10 s

Time (t2) taken by sound to reach the top from the tower base = 500/340 = 1.47 s

t = t1 + t2

t = 10 + 1.47

t = 11.47 s

14. A sound wave travels at a speed of 339 m s-1. If its wavelength is 1.5 cm, what is the frequency of the wave? Will it be audible?

Solution:

Speed (v) of sound = 339 m s−1

Wavelength (λ) of sound = 1.5 cm = 0.015 m

Speed of sound = Wavelength × Frequency

v = v = λ X v

v = v / λ = 339 / 0.015 = 22600 Hz

The frequency of audible sound for human beings lies between the ranges of 20 Hz to 20,000 Hz. The frequency of the given sound is more than 20,000 Hz; therefore, it is not audible.

#### Page: 175

15. What is reverberation? How can it be reduced?

Solution:

The continuous multiple reflections of sound in a big enclosed space are reverberation. It can be reduced by covering walls and ceilings of enclosed spaces with the help of sound-absorbing materials, such as loose woollens and fibre boards.

16. What is the loudness of sound? What factors does it depend on?

Solution:

Loud sounds have high energy. Loudness directly depends on the amplitude of vibrations. It is proportional to the square of the amplitude of vibrations of sound.

17. Explain how bats use ultrasound to catch prey.

Solution:

Bats have the ability to produce high-pitched ultrasonic squeaks. These squeaks get reflected by objects, like prey, and return to their ears. This helps a bat to know how far its prey is.

18. How is ultrasound used for cleaning?

Solution:

Objects that need to be cleansed are put in a cleaning solution, and ultrasonic sound waves are passed through the solution. The high frequency of ultrasound waves helps in detaching the dirt from the objects. In this way, ultrasound is used for cleaning purposes.

19. Explain the working and application of a sonar.

Solution:

SONAR is an abbreviation for Sound Navigation and Ranging. It is an acoustic device used in measuring the direction, speed, and depth of underwater objects, such as shipwrecks and submarines, using ultrasound.

Also, it is used to determine the depth of oceans and seas.

A beam of ultrasonic sound is produced and travels through the seawater, which is transmitted by the transducer. When it reflects, an echo is produced, which is detected and recorded by the detector. It is then converted into electrical signals. The distance represented by ‘d’ of the under-water object is calculated from the time (represented as ‘t’) taken by the echo to return with speed (represented as ‘v’) is expressed as,

2d × t

This method of measuring distance is also referred to as echo-ranging. 20. A sonar device on a submarine sends out a signal and receives an echo 5 s later. Calculate the speed of sound in water if the distance of the object from the submarine is 3625 m.

Solution:

Time (t) taken to hear the echo = 5 s

Distance (d) of an object from submarine = 3625 m

Total distance travelled by SONAR during reception and transmission in water = 2d

Velocity (v) of sound in water = 2d/t = (2 × 3625) / 5

= 1450 ms-1

21. Explain how defects in a metal block can be detected using ultrasound.

Solution:

Defective metal blocks will not allow ultrasound to pass through them and reflect it back. This technique is used in detecting defects in metal blocks. Make a set-up as shown in the figure, with ultrasound being passed through one end and detectors placed on the other end of a metal block. Since the defective part of the metal block does not allow ultrasound to pass through it, it will not be detected by the detector. In this way, defects in metal blocks can be detected with the help of ultrasound. 22. Explain how the human ear works.

Solution:

Various sounds produced by particles in our surroundings are collected by pinna that transfers these sounds to the eardrum through the ear canal. The eardrum begins to vibrate back and forth briskly as soon as the sound waves fall on it. The vibrating eardrum initiates the small bone hammer to vibrate. These vibrations are passed from the hammer to the third bone stirrup via the second bone anvil. The stirrup strikes the membrane of the oval window to pass its vibration to the cochlea. The liquid in the cochlea produces electrical impulses in the nerve cells. These electrical impulses are carried to the brain by the auditory nerve. They are interpreted by the brain as sound, and hence, we get a sensation of hearing. Also Access NCERT Exemplar Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 CBSE Notes for Class 9 Science Chapter 12

## NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 – Sound

This chapter holds a weightage of 27 marks in the examination. The questions can be asked from any topic; therefore, the students should be well-prepared. Detailed questions are frequently asked about the structure of the ear and the reflection of sound. Practise the numerical really well.

The topics included in the chapter are:

12.1 Production of Sound

12.2 Propagation of Sound

12.3 Reflection of Sound

12.4 Range of Hearing

12.5 Applications of Ultrasound

12.6 Structure of Human Ear

List of Exercises

Exercise Solutions 22 Questions (7 long, 5 numerical, 10 short)

Production of Sound – 2 Questions

Propagation of Sound – 3 Questions

Reflection of Sound – 4 Questions

Range of Hearing – 1 Question

Applications of Ultrasound – 4 Questions

Structure of Human Ear – 1 Question

## NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 – Sound

Sound is a mechanical or longitudinal wave. It cannot travel through a vacuum. Variation in pressure produces sound. The region of increased pressure on a sound wave is called compression, while the region of decreased pressure on a sound wave is called a rarefaction.

The various sources of sound are:

• Rapid expansions and compressions
• Vibrating solids
• Vortex shedding

### Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 – Sound

• NCERT Solutions provide conceptual knowledge on the topic.
• The questions are answered by subject experts; therefore, the concepts are accurate.
• They will help the students score well in the examinations.
• The questions provided might get repeated in the final examination. Therefore, it is advised to go through the questions and answers thoroughly.

Disclaimer:

Dropped Topics – Box item titled ‘Can sound make a light spot dance?’, Box item titled ‘Sonic Boom’, 12.2.1 Sound Needs a Medium– Travel, 12.5.1 Sonar and 12.6 Structure of Human Ear.

## Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12

Q1

### List out the topics included in Chapter 12 of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science.

The topics included in Chapter 12 of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science are
12.1 Production of Sound
12.2 Propagation of Sound
12.3 Reflection of Sound
12.4 Range of Hearing
12.5 Applications of Ultrasound
12.6 Structure of Human Ear
Q2

### How many exercises are present in Chapter 12 of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science?

The exercises presented in Chapter 12 of NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science are
Exercise Solutions – 22 Questions (7 long, 5 numerical, 10 short)
Production of Sound – 2 Questions
Propagation of Sound – 3 Questions
Reflection of Sound – 4 Questions
Range of Hearing – 1 Question
Applications of Ultrasound – 4 Questions
Structure of Human Ear – 1 Question
Q3

### Are the NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 the best study materials for the students?

The NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Science Chapter 12 help students to improve their conceptual knowledge. The solutions created by the subject experts at BYJU’S are accurate as per the latest CBSE syllabus and guidelines. Using the solutions PDF, students will be able to gain a clear view of the concepts which are important for the exams. Most of the questions in the board exams and competitive exams appear in the NCERT textbooks. For this purpose, students are advised to practise the textbook questions regularly for better academic performance.