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Periodic Table

Periodic Table

What is the Periodic Table?

The periodic table is an arrangement of all the elements known to man in accordance with their increasing atomic number and recurring chemical properties. They are assorted in a tabular arrangement wherein a row is a period and a column is a group.

Elements are arranged from left to right and top to bottom in the order of their increasing atomic numbers. Thus;

  • Elements in the same group will have the same valence electron configuration and hence similar chemical properties.
  • Whereas, elements in the same period will have an increasing order of valence electrons, therefore, as the energy level of the atom increases, the number of energy sub-levels per energy level increases.

The first 94 elements of the periodic table are naturally occurring, while the rest from 95 to 118 have only been synthesized in laboratories or nuclear reactors.

The modern periodic table, the one we use now, is a new and improved version of certain models put forth by scientists in the 19th and 20th century. Dimitri Mendeleev put forward his periodic table based on the findings of some scientists before him like John Newlands and Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier. But nevertheless, Mendeleev is given sole credit for his development of the periodic table.

Mendeleev Periodic Table

Dimitri Mendeleev, widely referred as the father of the periodic table put forth the first iteration of the periodic table similar to the one we use now. Mendeleev’s periodic law is different from the modern periodic law in one main aspect.

  • Mendeleev modeled his periodic table on the basis of increasing atomic mass, whereas, the modern periodic law is based on the increasing order of atomic numbers.

Even though Mendeleev’s periodic table was based on atomic weight, he was able to predict the discovery and properties of certain elements. As during his time only around half of the elements known to us now were known, and most of the information known about the elements were inaccurate. Mendeleev’s Periodic Table was published in the German Journal of chemistry in 1869.

Elements of the Periodic Table:

Element 1: Hydrogen

The first element we come across is Hydrogen whose chemical symbol is H. Hydrogen is the first and most basic amongst all the elements in the universe. The hydrogen is the lightest element in the periodic table, giving an alternate fuel option with the hydrogen fuel cell and 90% of all the atoms in the universe are hydrogen atoms.

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Element 2: Helium

Helium is the element which you can find on the upper right side of the periodic table with atomic number 2. It comes first amongst the family of the noble gases.Helium holds one atomic orbital and was named by Lockyer and Frankland. Finding use in helping balloons to float, helium is lighter than air.

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Element 3: Lithium

Lithium is the metal which comes first in the alkalis of the periodic table. Lithium is the lightest solid metal. It’s silver-white, soft having low melting point and reactive. Many physical and chemical properties of Lithium are very much similar to alkaline earth metals than to those of its own group. Lithium finds daily roles in our lives as portable consumer electronic devices in the form of a lithium battery.

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Element 4: Beryllium

Beryllium is a highly toxic bivalent element. It’s rare, durable, lightweight and steel gray, primarily used as a hardening agent in alloys. Beryllium has one of the highest melting points among the light metals and is formed by the spallation of larger atomic nuclei that have collided with cosmic rays.

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Element 5: Boron

Boron is a non-metallic element being the only non-metal among the group 13 of the elements of the periodic table. Boron is part of larger compounds, and it will be either in a crystal or brown powder with low-concentration in the Solar system and in the Earth’s crust.

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Element 6: Carbon

The chemical properties of Carbon are unique since it forms many components which are superior to the total addition of all other combination of elements. Carbon exists in almost every biological compound that is part of our body, organs, cells and systems from the carbon dioxide we breath out to graphene believed to be the strongest material known.

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Element 7: Nitrogen

The seventh element of the periodic table between carbon and oxygen is Nitrogen. It’s an important part of amino acids. Around eighty percent of the Earth’s atmosphere comprises of nitrogen gas, wherein other forms of it like liquid nitrogen not being present in nature.

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Element 8: Oxygen

We consume oxygen each and every second while breathing. We require oxygen to survive and so as all living organisms. Earth is the only planet in the solar system with enough oxygen blankets to make life possible without which everyone would need an oxygen concentrator to survive.

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Element 9: Fluorine

Fluorine is the lightest halogen but as a poisonous gas at room temperature and reactive with other elements which can combine with nearly any element on Earth. It is pale yellow-green and most electronegative among all the other elements.

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Element 10: Neon

Neon is reddish-orange colored in neon lamps and vacuum discharge tubes and second-lightest noble gas. Neon is less expensive refrigerant than helium in many applications. It is colorless, odorless and an inert monatomic gas under standard conditions.

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Element 11: Sodium

Sodium is a member of alkali metal family with lithium and potassium. Being one of the two elements in our table salt is it’s the biggest claim to fame. We get sodium chloride (NaCl) when sodium bonds with chlorine (Cl). It is also used as a salt in fertilizers. Sodium by itself is a highly reactive metal.

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Element 12: Magnesium

Magnesium is the most chemically active element. In boiling water, the place of hydrogen is taken by Magnesium and a number of metals can be produced using thermal reduction of its salts and oxidized forms with magnesium.

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Element 13: Aluminum

You are perhaps acquainted with the metal Al or aluminum. Several of you cover your parathas with aluminum foil. Then again, countless families also cook with the foil. Being such a pro with aluminum, you by this time know that the metal is very reflective and a silver-white color. It is non-magnetic and a ductile metal.

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Element 14: Silicon

A close relative of carbon (C) in the periodic table is silicon (Si). Silicon is found universally in our world but is not found individually in our environment. You will, at all times find silicon bound to other elements, for instance, oxygen (O). A form of Silicon, Silicone takes the high strength of silicone rubber makes it an optimal adhesive/sealant for high impact airbags.

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Element 15: Phosphorus

Despite the fact that for thousands of years people have been using the periodic table with phosphorus (P) in it, it was not until 1669 that it was secluded and termed by a chemist named Brand. Phosphorus is an element that one will under no circumstances find freely in our environment due to its extremely high reactivity. Phosphorus generally exists as white phosphorus and red phosphorus.

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Element 16: Sulfur

Sulfur (S) is an element that can never be overlooked. In color, it is bright yellow, and it has an extremely bad odor (like eggs gone bad). Outside the apparent physical characters of sulfur, humans have been consuming this element for a thousand years. It is multivalent, nonmetallic and abundant.

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Element 17: Chlorine

Chlorine (Cl) every time takes us back resting outside near the pool on a summery day. There’s that slight punitive smell that continuously originated from the area with the filters of the pool. It wasn’t until 1774 that a chemist called Davy secluded the chlorine gas. It is second-lightest of the halogens.

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Element 18: Argon

It’s amusing how it took experts until 1894 to notice the most normal noble gas on Earth. That’s true, argon (Ar) occupies a little above one percent of our atmosphere. Sir William Ramsay and Lord Rayleigh revealed and secluded argon gas, but it’s funny the amount of time it took. It finds applications in argon welding.

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Element 19: Potassium

Potassium is the first element of the fourth row (period). The term potassium arises from a material called Potash (ashes of plants). We are suggested to have potassium-rich foods as the mineral helps to regulate your body’s fluid levels, aids in muscular function and waste removal, and helps keep your nervous system functioning properly.

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Element 20: Calcium

You may have overheard about calcium beforehand. Calcium (Ca) is a vital element that aids our bones stay tough and capable to support our load hence calcium-rich foods are recommended. Calcium is also used by our nervous system to help transmit impulses through our body.

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Element 21: Scandium

Scandium is mined from one of the rare minerals from Scandinavia making it a rare earth element. The color it develops when exposed to air is yellowish or pinkish cast. One of the characteristics of Scandium is it gets tarnished and burned easily if ignited. It also reacts with hydrogen gas and will dissolve in acids.

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Element 22: Titanium

Titanium with its symbol Ti is a transition element with lustrous silver color, a fairly high melting temperature of  1,668 °C. It is also known for its high strength and low density. Titanium is usually found in the form of titanium dioxide in nature. Due to its high strength and low-density properties, it finds applications in the aircraft industry like the air force, spacecraft industry like in the case of Cassini spacecraft and in ballistic projectile launches like missiles for the navy and army.

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Element 23: Vanadium

A rare, soft, ductile grey-white element that is found combined in minerals and used to produce alloys is Vanadium. Due to its protective film of oxide on the surface, it resists corrosion. It’s now used in nuclear power plants and several purification processes like in the production of sulphuric acid.

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Element 24: Chromium

Chromium is a brittle, lustrous, hard metal which has a silver-gray color and is highly polished. It burns when heated, and the compound that it forms is a green chromic oxide. Chromium has a high melting point of 1,907 °C. It has an application as chromium picolinate which is a nutritional supplement to treat type 2 diabetes and promote weight loss.

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Element 25: Manganese

Manganese, a chemical element that has a symbol Mn and atomic number 25. This element is not found as a free element in nature but available in combination with iron and other minerals. It is a metal that has important metal alloy uses and particularly in stainless steel. An oxide of Manganese is used as a catalyst, a rubber additive and to decolorize glass that is colored green by iron impurities.

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Element 26: Iron

Iron with its symbol Fe is a metal, an element of group VIII, first transition series of the periodic table. It is a lustrous, ductile, malleable, silver-gray in color. Iron is the tenth most abundant element in the universe. Iron is found in a major amount at the core of the Earth in a molten form. Iron is also an essential element for blood production is why we are entailed to have iron-rich foods.

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Element 27: Cobalt

The element Cobalt (Co) belongs to the group VIII of the periodic table. It is similar to iron and nickel in its physical properties. Cobalt is found in plants and animals, air, water, soil, rocks. Cobalt is found in the earth in the combined form.

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Element 28: Nickel

Nickel is a transition metal, with an atomic weight of 28, located in the fourth period/row on the table of elements. Nickel is an essential nutrient for the body but it’s over intake can cause harm. Nickel is also extensively used for making stainless steel and other corrosion-resistant alloys.

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Element 29: Copper

For thousands of years, Copper is a metal that has been a part of our civilization. Silver, gold, copper, and Iron all have been made use of in one form or another. While one may not consider copper being used for something other than coins, it is a crucial element in the creation of bronze and brass.

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Element 30: Zinc

Zinc is one more of those advantageous metals that we make use of daily. It’s part of those elements which humans have been expanding for thousands of years. One can find zinc in alloys, minerals, and even in our bodies through the zinc-rich foods, we eat. Zinc also has use’s in rubber, cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, plastics, inks, soaps, batteries, textiles and electrical equipment.

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Element 31: Gallium

Gallium, a chemical element, the metal of main Group 13 of the periodic table. Solid gallium is of blue-gray metal having orthorhombic crystalline structure whereas very pure gallium is coated with stunning silvery color. Galium has been used to make alloys of low melting point.

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Element 32: Germanium

Germanium, a chemical element places between silicon and tin in Group 14 of the periodic table. A hard, gray-white, lustrous and brittle metalloid acts in properties between the metals and the nonmetals

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Element 33: Arsenic

Arsenic (As), a pure elemental crystal placed in the nitrogen group of the periodic table that exists in both the gray and yellow crystalline forms. It is present in three allotropic forms- black, yellow and grey. A silver-gray and brittle crystalline solid are the stable forms.

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Element 34: Selenium

Selenium is a chemical element that is placed in the oxygen group of the periodic table. It is often found in combination with metals like mercury, copper, silver or lead. It is combined with the physical properties of elements like tellurium and sulfur.

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Element 35: Bromine

Bromine is a chemical element which is of deep red, noxious liquid and one of the members of the halogen elements of the periodic table. This element is reddish brown liquid added with an appreciable vapor pressure at room temperature. Bromine vapors show amber color similar to its liquid state. A form of bromine, Theobromine,  is found in chocolate.

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Element 36: Krypton

Krypton (Kr) is a chemical element and a rare gas of the Group 18 of the periodic table. This gas is almost three times heavier than the air. It is colorless, tasteless, monatomic and odorless. This gas is more plentiful in Earth’s atmosphere as its traces are present in minerals and meteorites.

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