Symbol Au
Atomic Number 79
Atomic Mass 196.97 g.mol−1
Discovered by Unknown

Chemical Properties of Gold

Group 11 Melting point 1064.18°C, 1947.52°F, 1337.33 K
Period 6 Boiling point 2836°C, 5137°F, 3109 K
Block d Density (g cm−3) 19.3
Atomic number 79 Relative atomic mass 196.97
State at 20°C Solid Key isotopes 197Au
Electron configuration [Xe] 4f145d106s1 CAS number 7440-57-5
ChemSpider ID 22421 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database

What is Gold?

  • Gold is a soft bright, dense, soft, malleable, and ductile metal with a slightly reddish yellow colour when available in mass. But when divided finely it becomes black, purple or ruby.
  • Being one of the most malleable and ductile metals, 28g of gold can be beaten into 300 square feet of it.
  • A major share of this soft metal is mined and is handed to us as gravels or quartz veins or pyrites deposits.

Uses of Gold

  • The metal is mainly used to manufacture jewellery, glass and different parts in electronics items.
  • Gold can be made into thread and used in embroidery.
  • A thin layer of this metal is used on the windows of a large building for reflecting the heat of sun rays.
  • Gold is also used in medicine. Its radioactive isotope Au-198 is used for the treatment of the tumour.

Properties of Gold

  • Being very good conductors of heat and electricity, the metal does not get affected by air and most reagents.
  • The element is corrosion resistant and is present in deposits of alluvium and veins.
  • Most common gold compounds include chloroauric acid and auric chloride.
  • To provide more strength to the metal, another soft metal is alloyed to it.

Certain Facts About Gold

  • The metal consumes around 75 % of the jewellery across the world.
  • The element is abundant on the planet at 0.03g per 1000kg background level.
  • The atomic symbol of gold ‘Au’ comes from the Latin word “aurum”.
  • A gold layer (thin coating) is done on astronaut helmets to protect them from UV radiation.
  • The price of the metal is determined through trading in gold.
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