Metals

What are Metals?

Metals are minerals or substances that form naturally below the surface of the Earth. Most metals are lustrous or shiny. Metals ate inorganic, which means they are made of substances that were never alive.

Metals are natural compounds of earth’s crust, in which they are generally found in the form of metal ores, associated both with each other and with many other elements. They are also naturally present in the rocks washed by surface water and groundwater and in atmospheric dust.

Examples of Metals

Examples of Metals

Examples of Metals

Metal is very strong and durable and therefore is used to make many things. These are used for making automobiles, satellites, cooking utensils, etc.

Most metals are hard but some are not. Sodium and potassium are such metals that can be cut by knife whereas mercury is a liquid metal at room temperature. Iron is solid in nature.

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Types of Metals (The Complete List)

When all of the metals are to be considered as a group, an advantage may be gained if their names are set down in the tabular form.

S.No Atomic Number Symbol Metal Elements
1 3 Li Lithium
2 4 Be Beryllium
3 11 Na Sodium
4 12 Mg Magnesium
5 13 Al Aluminum
6 19 K Potassium
7 20 Ca Calcium
8 21 Sc Scandium
9 22 Ti Titanium
10 23 V Vanadium
11 24 Cr Chromium
12 25 Mn Manganese
13 26 Fe Iron
14 27 Co Cobalt
15 28 Ni Nickel
16 29 Cu Copper
17 30 Zn Zinc
18 31 Ga Gallium
19 37 Rb Rubidium
20 38 Sr Strontium
21 39 Y Yttrium
22 40 Zr Zirconium
23 41 Nb Niobium
24 42 Mo Molybdenum
25 43 Tc Technetium
26 44 Ru Ruthenium
27 45 Rh Rhodium
28 46 Pd Palladium
29 47 Ag Silver
30 48 Cd Cadmium
31 49 In Indium
32 50 Sn Tin
33 55 Cs Cesium
34 56 Ba Barium
35 57 La Lanthanum
36 58 Ce Cerium
37 59 Pr Praseodymium
38 60 Nd Neodymium
39 61 Pm Promethium
40 62 Sm Samarium
41 63 Eu Europium
42 64 Gd Gadolinium
43 65 Tb Terbium
44 66 Dy Dysprosium
45 67 Ho Holmium
46 68 Er Erbium
47 69 Tm Thulium
48 70 Yb Ytterbium
49 71 Lu Lutetium
50 72 Hf Hafnium
51 73 Ta Tantalum
52 74 W Tungsten
53 75 Re Rhenium
54 76 Os Osmium
55 77 Ir Iridium
56 78 Pt Platinum
57 79 Au Gold
58 80 Hg Mercury
59 81 Tl Thallium
60 82 Pb Lead
61 83 Bi Bismuth
62 84 Po Polonium
63 87 Fr Francium
64 88 Ra Radium
65 89 Ac Actinium
66 90 Th Thorium
67 91 Pa Protactinium
68 92 U Uranium
69 93 Np Neptunium
70 94 Pu Plutonium
71 95 Am Americium
72 96 Cm Curium
73 97 Bk Berkelium
74 98 Cf Californium
75 99 Es Einsteinium
76 100 Fm Fermium
77 101 Md Mendelevium
78 102 No Nobelium
79 103 Lr Lawrencium
80 104 Rf Rutherfordium
81 105 Db Dubnium
82 106 Sg Seaborgium
83 107 Bh Bohrium
84 108 Hs Hassium
85 109 Mt Meitnerium
86 110 Ds Darmstadtium
87 111 Rg Roentgenium
88 112 Cn Copernicium
89 113 Nh Nihonium
90 114 Fl Flerovium
91 115 Mc Moscovium
92 116 Lv Livermorium

Physical Properties of Metals

  • All the metals are good conductors of heat and electricity. Cooking utensils and irons are made up of metals as they are good conductors of heat.
  • Ductility is the ability of the material to be stretched into a wire. This ability allows metals to be drawn into wires and coupled with their durability, find applications as cable wires and for soldering purposes. Because Metals can be drawn into wires we can say that metals are ductile.
  • Malleability is the property of substances which allows them to be beaten into flat sheets. Aluminium sheets are used in the manufacturing of Aircraft because of their lightweight and strength. Other metals sheets are used in automobile industries, for making utensils, etc. Therefore, metals are malleable.
  • Metals are sonorous because it produces a deep or ringing sound when struck with another hard object.
  • Usually, all the metals have a shiny appearance but these metals can also be polished to have a shiny appearance.

Chemical properties of Metals

  1. Reaction with water: Only highly reactive metals react with water and not all the metals. For example, Sodium reacts vigorously with water and oxygen and gives a large amount of heat in the process. This is why sodium is stored in kerosene so that it does not come in contact with moisture or oxygen.
  2. Reaction with acids: Hydrogen gas is produced when metals react with acids. For example, when zinc reacts with hydrochloric acid it produces zinc chloride and hydrogen gas.
  3. Reaction with bases: Not all the metals react with bases and when they do react, they produce metal salts and hydrogen gas. When zinc reacts with strong sodium hydroxide it gives sodium zincate and hydrogen gas.
  4. Reaction with oxygen: Metal oxides are produced when metals burn in the presence of oxygen. These metal oxides are basic in nature. For example: When magnesium strip is burned in the presence of oxygen it forms magnesium oxide and when magnesium oxide dissolves in water it forms magnesium hydroxide.

FAQs

1. Whats are metals?
Ans: A metal in chemistry is an element that creates positive ions (cations) readily and has metallic bonds. Metals are sometimes represented by a cloud of delocalized electrons as a lattice of positive ions.

2. What is metal or nonmetal?
Ans: A metal is a component, material, or alloy that is usually solid, transparent, shiny, and has good conductivity in terms of electrical and thermal. Metals are usually malevolent, which ensures that they can be indefinitely hammered or pressed without fracturing or cracking, as well as fusible or ductile

3. What is the hardest metal in the world?
Ans: Tungsten has any natural metal’s highest tensile strength, but it is brittle and appears to break down on contact.

4. What is the softest metal?
Ans: Cesium is considered to be the softest metal, and Lead is considered one of the softest metals. Answer 3: Mercury at room temperature is liquid (molten). Gallium is liquid at body temperature, while solid (if soft) at room temperature.

5. What happens if you touch calcium metal?
Ans: Calcium will react with heat-causing water or moisture. When calcium metal contains moisture in the eyes, body, or respiratory tract, it can result in severe corrosive irritation.

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