Metals and Nonmetals are the elements present around us. So, it is important to know whether a particular element is a metal or nonmetal. Materials can be divided into metals and nonmetals. The characteristic feature of metals like copper and aluminium is a high electrical and thermal conductivity, while nonmetals such as phosphorus and sulfur are insulators. Elements are distinguished as above based on their properties.
Non-metals occupy the upper right-hand portion of the periodic table. Considering the properties of non-metals it is not shiny, malleable or ductile nor are they good conductors of electricity. These properties of non-metals provide one means by which we can distinguish metals from non-metals.
Properties of Non-metals have less in common with each other than metals. Their physical and chemical properties vary widely. Some non-metals are solids and some are gases at room temperature.
What are Metals?
Majority elements in the periodic table are metals. This includes alkali metals, transition metals, lanthanides, actinides, and alkaline earth metals. Metals are separated by nonmetals on a periodic table through a zigzag line starting from carbon, till radon. The elements between the two are phosphorus, selenium, and iodine.
These elements and elements right to them in the periodic table are nonmetals. Elements present just to the left of the line are termed as semimetals or metalloids. These will have the combined properties of both metals and nonmetals.
What are Nonmetals?
Very few elements in the periodic table are nonmetals. These are present on the right-hand side in the periodic table. Elements that come under nonmetals are sulfur, carbon, all halogens, phosphorus, hydrogen, oxygen, selenium, nitrogen, and noble gases.
In the periodic table, non-metals are located left of the halogens and to the right of the metalloids. Since noble gases and halogens are also nonmetals, these elements are often referred to as non-metals.
Properties of Metals
Physical Properties of Metals
Some of the physical properties of metals are listed below.
- Shiny (lustrous) in nature
- Metal is a good conductor of electricity and heat
- Density and melting point is high
- Mouldable (Malleable)
- At room temperature, it is in solid form except for mercury
Chemical Properties of Metals
Some of the chemical properties of metals are listed below.
- Easily corrodible
- Can lose electrons
- Form basic oxides
- Have low electronegativities
- Good reducing agents
Properties of Non-Metals
Physical Properties of Non-metals
Some of the physical properties of non-metals are listed below.
- Poor conductors of electricity and heat
- Non-Ductile metals
- Brittle solids
- Maybe solids, liquids or gases at room temperature
- These are not sonorous
Chemical Properties of Non-metals
Some of the chemical properties of non-metals are listed below.
- The number of electrons in the outer shell is generally 4-8
- Easily gain or lose valence electrons
- Form acidic oxides whenever they come in contact with oxygen
- High electronegative elements
- Great oxidizing agents
Nonmetals and metals take different forms (allotropes). They have different shapes and properties. Allotropes are elements that exist in two or more than two different physical forms.
- Example 1: A non-metal carbon – two allotropes of carbon are diamond and graphite.
- Example 2: A metal such as iron – two allotropes of iron are austenite and ferrite
Have a look at the given table depicting the major Difference Between Metals And Nonmetals for better understanding.
Difference Between Metals And Nonmetals
A reactivity series is a vital tool for chemists. It helps us to understand the properties of metals and the differences between them.
|These are solids at room temperature except mercury||These exist in all three states|
|These are very hard except sodium||These are soft except diamond|
|These are malleable and ductile||These are brittle and can be breakdown into pieces|
|These are shiny||These are non-lustrous except iodine|
|Electropositive in nature||Electronegative in nature|
|Have high densities||Have low densities|
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