Symbol Ge
Atomic Number 32
Atomic Mass 72.630
Discovered by Germanium was discovered by Clemens Winkler

Chemical Properties Of Germanium

Group 14 Melting point 938.25°C, 1720.85°F, 1211.4 K
Period 4 Boiling point 2833°C, 5131°F, 3106 K
Block p Density (g cm−3) 5.3234
Atomic number 32 Relative atomic mass 72.630  
State at 20°C Solid Key isotopes 73Ge, 74Ge
Electron configuration [Ar]3d10 4s4p2 CAS number 7440-56-4
ChemSpider ID 4885606 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database

What is Germanium?

  • Germanium, a chemical element places between silicon and tin in Group 14 of the periodic table.
  • A hard, gray-white, lustrous and brittle metalloid acts in properties between metals and nonmetals.
  • The element is mostly distributed in nature, but it’s too reactive to occur free.
  • Germanium has a diamond-like structure and is very similar to physical and chemical properties of silicon.
  • It is stable in air and water and does not get affected by alkalis and acids except nitric acid.
  • There are primary minerals which include germanite, argyrodite, Canfield site, and renierite. Only renierite and germanite have been used as commercial sources for the element.
  • Some of the trace quantities of germanium are found in various zinc blended minerals– some in sulfidic ores of arsenic and copper & some coals.

Uses Of Germanium

  • Germanium acts as a semiconductor, commonly doped with arsenic and other elements and used as a transistor in different electronic applications.
  • The oxides of Germanium includes a high index of dispersion and refraction which makes it perfect to use in wide-angle camera lenses & objective lenses for microscopes.
  • It is also used as an alloying agent in contact with fluorescent lamps and as a catalyst.
  • As both the germanium and germanium oxides are transparent to infrared radiation, these are used in infrared spectroscopes.

Practise This Question

As a result of alpha particle scattering experiment, Rutherford concluded that: