|Group||14||Melting point||938.25°C, 1720.85°F, 1211.4 K|
|Period||4||Boiling point||2833°C, 5131°F, 3106 K|
|Block||p||Density (g cm−3)||5.3234|
|Atomic number||32||Relative atomic mass||72.630|
|State at 20°C||Solid||Key isotopes||73Ge, 74Ge|
|Electron configuration||[Ar]3d10 4s2 4p2||CAS number||7440-56-4|
|ChemSpider ID||4885606||ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database|
- Germanium, a chemical element places between silicon and tin in Group 14 of the periodic table.
- A hard, gray-white, lustrous and brittle metalloid acts in properties between metals and nonmetals.
- The element is mostly distributed in nature, but it’s too reactive to occur free.
- Germanium has a diamond-like structure and is very similar to physical and chemical properties of silicon.
- It is stable in air and water and does not get affected by alkalis and acids except nitric acid.
- There are primary minerals which include germanite, argyrodite, Canfield site, and renierite. Only renierite and germanite have been used as commercial sources for the element.
- Some of the trace quantities of germanium are found in various zinc blended minerals– some in sulfidic ores of arsenic and copper & some coals.
- Germanium acts as a semiconductor, commonly doped with arsenic and other elements and used as a transistor in different electronic applications.
- The oxides of Germanium includes a high index of dispersion and refraction which makes it perfect to use in wide-angle camera lenses & objective lenses for microscopes.
- It is also used as an alloying agent in contact with fluorescent lamps and as a catalyst.
- As both the germanium and germanium oxides are transparent to infrared radiation, these are used in infrared spectroscopes.