Lithium

Lithium
Lithium
Symbol Li
Atomic Number 3
Atomic Mass 6.941 g.mol -1
Discovered by Johann Artvedson in 1817

Chemical Properties

Group 1 Melting point 180.5 °C
Period 2 Boiling point 2061 °C
Block s Density (g cm−3) 0.534
Atomic number 3 Relative atomic mass 6.94
State at 20°C Solid Key isotopes 7Li
Electron configuration [He] 2s1 CAS number 7439-93-2
ChemSpider ID 2293625 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database.

What is Lithium?

  • Lithium is a chemical element that occurs first in the alkalis of the periodic table.
  • It is the lightest solid metal.
  • It’s moderately abundant and present in the Earth’s crust in 65 ppm (parts per million).

Uses of Lithium

  • Bromine and lithium chloride together form concentrated brine which absorbs the humidity under high temperature. Brine is used in the manufacturing of air conditioning systems.
  • Alloys of the metal with manganese, cadmium, copper, and aluminum are used to make aircraft’s parts.
  • The carbonate is used in medicine as an antidepressant and pottery industry.

Properties of Lithium

  • Lithium takes an active part in many reactions with organic and inorganic reactants. It reacts with oxygen to form monoxide and peroxide.
  • Metallic Lithium reacts extremely vigorously with water.
  • Among the significant properties of this metal, we can find its high specific heat which is the calorific capacity. Other properties are its enormous temperature interval in the liquid state, high thermal conductivity.
  • It has very low density and low viscosity.
  • Metallic form of this metal is soluble in aliphatic amines of a short chain like ethylamine but insoluble in hydrocarbons.

Certain Facts About Lithium

  • Lithium is found only in salts and minerals. The lithium-ion battery is a key component that is used in many digital devices.

Practise This Question

How many litres of water must be added to 1 L of an aqueous solution of HCl with a pH of 1 to create an aqueous solution with pH of 2?