Symbol N
Atomic Number 7
Atomic Mass 14.007
Discovered by Daniel Rutherford in 1772

Chemical Properties of Nitrogen

Group 15   Melting point −210.0°C, −346.0°F, 63.2 K
Period 2 Boiling point −195.795°C, −320.431°F, 77.355 K
Block p Density (g cm−3) 0.001145
Atomic number 7 Relative atomic mass 14.007  
State at 20°C Gas Key isotopes 14N
Electron configuration [He] 2s22p3 CAS number 7727-37-9
ChemSpider ID 20473555 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database

What is Nitrogen?

  • The seventh element of the periodic table between carbon and oxygen is Nitrogen.
  • It’s an important part of amino acids.
  • Around eighty percent of the Earth’s atmosphere comprises of nitrogen gas.
  • It has no color, mostly diatomic nonmetal gas along with odorless and colorless in nature.
  • Since it has five electrons in its outer shell, most of its compounds are trivalent.
  • It is a constituent of all living tissues. Since it is a component of DNA and part of a genetic code, it is an essential element of life.
  • It is found in nitrates and nitrites in soil and water.
  • All these substances are part of the nitrogen cycle and interconnected. Industrial companies emit nitrogen extensively, increasing nitrite and nitrate content in the ground and water, being the consequence of reactions in the nitrogen cycle.

Uses of Nitrogen

  • It is used in the manufacture of ammonia, to produce nitric acid and subsequently used as a fertilizer.
  • Nitric acid salts include important compounds like potassium nitrate, ammonium nitrate, and nitric acid. Nitrated organic compounds such as nitroglycerine are often explosives.
  • Liquid nitrogen is utilized as a refrigerant for transporting foodstuff and freezing purpose. Preservation of bodies and reproductive cells and stable storage of biological samples also makes use of liquid nitrogen.

Practise This Question

Nitrogen cannot be used by plants directly. True or False?