Synthetic Fibres - Properties of synthetic fibres

What is Synthetic Fibre?

Synthetic fibres are man-made fibres, most of them are prepared from raw material (petroleum) called petrochemicals. All fabrics are obtained from fibres, while fibres are obtained from artificial or man-made sources.  They consist of a small unit or a polymer which is made from many repeating units known as monomers.

Example:

  • rayon
  • nylon
  • polyester

This fibre finds its applications in household articles like ropes, bucket, furniture, etc. Following are some of the most commonly used synthetic fibres:

Know more about Classifications of Fibers

Synthetic Fibre examples

Synthetic Fibre

Rayon

  • This is a type of synthetic fibre obtained from wood pulp.
  • Rayon is soft, absorbent and comfortable.
  • It is easy to dye in a wide range of colours.
  • Rayon is mixed with cotton to make bedsheets.
  • Rayon is mixed with wool to make carpets.

Nylon

  • This type of synthetic fibre is obtained from coal, water and air.
  • Nylon is very lustrous, easy to wash and elastic.
  • It dries quickly and retains its shape.
  • Nylon finds its application in seat belts of car, sleeping bags, socks, ropes, etc.
  • Nylon is also used in ropes for rock climbing, making parachutes and fishing nets.

Polyester

  • This type of synthetic fibre is obtained from coal, water, air and petroleum.
  • Polyester is made from repeating units of a chemical known as esters.
  • Polyester is easy to wash and it remains wrinkle-free and it is quite suitable in making dress material.
  • Polyester retains its shape and remains crisp.
  • Polyester is used in making ropes, nets, raincoats, jackets, etc.

 Advantages of Synthetic fibres

  • Synthetic fibres are very durable and do not wrinkle easily
  • They are elastic and can be easily stretched out
  • They are strong and can sustain the heavy load.
  • They are soft and hence used in clothing material.
  • They are cheaper as compared to natural fibres.

Disadvantages of synthetic fibres

  • Most synthetic fibres do not absorb moisture.
  • Synthetic fibre can be affected if washed using hot water.
  • They catch fire easily as compared to natural fibre.

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