|Iron Atomic Number||26|
|Iron Atomic Mass||55.85 g.mol -1|
|Discovered by||The Ancients|
Chemical Properties Of Iron
|Group||8||Melting point||1536 °C|
|Period||4||Boiling point||2861 °C|
|Block||d||Density (g cm−3)||7.8 g.cm-3 at 20°C|
|Atomic number||26||Relative atomic mass||55.845|
|State at 20°C||Solid||Key isotopes||56Fe|
|Electron configuration||[Ar] 3d64s2||CAS number||7439-89-6|
|ChemSpider ID||22368||ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database|
What is iron?
- Iron is a metal, an element of group VIII of the periodic table. It is a lustrous, ductile, malleable, silver-grey in colour. It is the tenth most abundant element in the universe. It is found in a major amount at the core of the Earth in a molten form.
Uses of iron
- It is used to manufacture steel and also used in civil engineering like reinforced concrete, girders etc.
- Iron is used to make alloy steels like carbon steels with additives such as nickel, chromium, vanadium, tungsten, and manganese.
- These are used to make bridges, electricity pylons, bicycle chains, cutting tools and rifle barrels.
- Cast iron contains 3–5% carbon. It is used for pipes, valves, and pumps.
- Iron catalysts are used in the Haber process for producing ammonia.
- Magnets can be made of this metal and its alloys and compounds.
Physical Properties of Iron
- It rusts in damp air, but not in the dry air.
- It dissolves readily in dilute acids.
- At room temperature, this metal is in the form of ferrite or α-form.
- At 910°C, it changes to γ-iron, which is much softer in nature.
- It melts at 1536°C and boils at 2861°C.
- Being a metal is magnetic in nature.
Certain Facts About Iron
- An average human body contains about 4 grams of this iron in the form of hemoglobin, in the blood.
- It is the 6th most common element in the universe.
- There are four known allotropic forms of iron.
Frequently Asked Questions
1. What is the importance of the element iron?
- It is a building block of steel
- It helps in transferring oxygen in the blood and
- It also helps in the nourishment of plants.
2. What is the atomic number of iron?
3. Write the electronic configuration of iron.
Ans: [Ar] 3d64s2 .
4. What is the boiling point of iron?
Ans: The boiling point of iron is 2861 °C.