Symbol Na
Atomic Number 11
Atomic Mass 22.990
Discovered by Sodium was discovered by Humphry Davy

Chemical Properties of Sodium

Group 1   Melting point 97.794°C, 208.029°F, 370.944 K
Period 3 Boiling point 882.940°C, 1621.292°F, 1156.090 K
Block s Density (g cm−3) 0.97
Atomic number 11 Relative atomic mass 22.990  
State at 20°C Gas Key isotopes 23Na
Electron configuration [Ne] 3s1 CAS number 7440-23-5
ChemSpider ID 4514534 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database

What is Sodium?

  • Sodium is a member of alkali metal family with lithium and potassium. Being one of the two elements in our table salt is it’s the biggest claim to fame.
  • We get sodium chloride (NaCl) when sodium bonds with chlorine (Cl). It is also used as a salt in fertilizers.
  • Sodium is reactive, soft metal with a low melting point and most important of all the alkaline metals from the commercial point of view. Sodium reacts rapidly with water, snow, and ice to produce sodium hydroxide.
  • When metallic sodium is exposed to air, it loses its silver appearance and develops an opaque gray color layer which is a coating of sodium oxide. Sodium does not react with nitrogen even at very high temperatures but reacts with ammonia to form sodium amide.
  • Sodium reacts with hydrogen above 200ºC to form sodium hydride. It also reacts with various metallic halides to form sodium chloride and the metal.
  • With an atomic number of 11, it is represented by the symbol Na in the Periodic table.

Uses of Sodium

  • It also used in improving the structure of certain alloys; soaps, purification of molten metals and in sodium vapour lamps.
  • Sodium is a component of sodium chloride, which is very important compound found in the living environment.
  • Sodium is important in the manufacturing of organic compounds and in making esters.
  • Solid sodium carbonate is required in making glass.

Practise This Question

A compound MpXq has cubic close packing (ccp) arrangement of X. Its unit cell structure is shown below. The empirical formula of the compound is