Silver nitrate is one of the inorganic compounds with AgNO3 as its chemical formula. The compound is an adaptable progenitor to various other compounds of silver like those used in color photography. It is way little sensitive to light than other halides. The silver ions in solid silver nitrate are tri-coordinated in a trilateral planar setup.
Silver Nitrate Reactions
A typical reaction of silver nitrate is to suspend a copper rod in a silver nitrate solution and keep it undisturbed for a few hours. The silver nitrate reacts with copper to produce silver crystals along with a blue copper nitrate solution.
2 AgNO3 + Cu → Cu(NO3)2 + 2 Ag
When Silver nitrate is heated, it decomposes.
2 AgNO3(l) → 2 Ag(s) + O2(g) + 2NO2(g)
Decomposition is qualitatively negligible lower than the melting point but proves to be appreciable around 250oC and decomposes completely at 440oC.
Many metal nitrates decompose thermally to the reactive oxides. While silver oxide decomposes at a temperature lower than that of silver nitrate. Hence the decomposition of silver nitrate gives elemental silver.
Uses of Silver Nitrate
Silver nitrate is a corrosive metal which is administered either in the form of a liquid or a stick form diluted with water.
Silver nitrate is diluted with water in the liquid form with 0.01% to 10% concentration. This solution serves as a mild antiseptic in medical setups. A 1 to 2 percent solution is strong enough against gonococcal bacteria that is responsible for gonorrhea. Beginning in 1881, doctors administered the solution of silver nitrate into the eyes of a baby born to mothers affected by gonorrhea to prevent the babies from blindness due to the infection.
Silver nitrate is also used for the treatment and removal of unwanted warts. Warts are also caused by cauterizing wounds and lesions to prevent from bleeding and infection. The stick is moistened ideally with distilled water and kept against the war, wound or lesion for a specific time period of one or two minutes daily once.
Silver nitrate is used in laboratories apart from its various medical applications to test for the presence of substances like hydroxide, chlorine and iodine ions. It is consumed in manufacturing permanent fabric markers and hair dyes. A solution consisting of 2 to 3 percent silver nitrate can slow down the blooming of cut flowers and stay fresh for longer.