Extraction of Aluminium

A soft, silvery-white, corrosion-resistant metal. It is the most abundant metal in the earth’s crust as it makes up 8% of the crust and it is the third most abundant element after oxygen and silicon. Bauxite ore (Al2O3.xH2O) is the major source of aluminium till date which is a mixture of hydrated aluminium oxide.

Aluminium can also be recovered from cryolite (Na3AlF6) and alunite. It is also found in gemstones such as garnet, topaz and chrysoberyl. The chemical symbol of this metal is Al. In the boron group with symbol Al, aluminium is a chemical element and is the most commonly used non-ferrous metal.

Aluminium Ore

Ores of Aluminium

Aluminium is a highly reactive metal, belonging to the IIIA group of the periodic table. In nature, aluminium is found in the form of its oxide in its ores. The important ores of aluminium are

  • Bauxite – Al2O3.2H2O
  • Corundum – Al2O3
  • Cryolite – Na3AlF6

Metallurgy of Aluminium

Aluminium is mostly extracted from its bauxite ore. Dressing of ore: The ore is crushed and pulverized.

Concentration of ore

The bauxite ore contains ferric oxide and silica as impurities. It is first concentrated by gravity separation of ferric oxide impurities by the process of magnetic separation. The ore is then concentrated by chemical process.

Bauxite is the name given to aluminium ore. To generate aluminium oxide, bauxite is purified, a white powder form which aluminium can be extracted. Aluminium oxide has a very high melting point of more than 2000 ° C so melting it would be costly. Aluminium oxide in water does not dissolve, but in molten cryolite, it dissolves.

Aluminium Alloy

Pure aluminium is a silver-white metal with many desirable features. It’s light, non-toxic, non-magnetic, and non-sparking. It’s a bit ornamental. It’s created, machined, and cast readily. Pure aluminium is soft and lacks strength, but it has very helpful characteristics for alloys with tiny quantities of copper, magnesium, silicon, manganese and other components.

Bayer’s Process

In this process, aluminium ore is treated with concentrated sodium hydroxide. Soluble sodium aluminate is formed which is filtered off. The filtrate on heating with water gives aluminium hydroxide which gives alumina on strong heating.

Hall-Heroult Process

The Hall-Heroult process is widely used in the extraction of aluminium. In Hall-Heroults process, pure Al2O3 is mixed with CaF2 or Na3AlF6. This results in lowering of the melting point of the mixture and increases its ability to conduct electricity.  A steel vessel with the lining of carbon and graphite rods is used.

The carbon lining acts as cathode and graphite act as an anode. When electricity is passed through the electrolytic cell which consists of carbon electrodes oxygen is formed at the anode. This oxygen formed reacts with the carbon of the anode to form carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. In this method of production of aluminium for every 1 kg of Al produced, approximately 0.5 Kg of carbon anode is burnt.


Aluminium ions are created at the adverse cathode from the aluminium oxide and then sink down because they are heavier than the cryolite solution. Then, the liquid shape of the aluminium that has sunk to the bottom. On the other side, at the positive anode, the oxygen from the aluminium oxide forms and responds to carbon dioxide CO2 with the graphite carbon.

The overall reaction is:

2Al2O3 + 3C → 4Al + 3CO2

The electrolytic reactions are:

At the cathode:

Al 3+ + 3e → Al (l)

At the anode:

C (s) + O2- → CO (g) + 2e

C (s) + 2O2- → CO2 (g) + 4e

During the process of electrolysis,

  • Aluminium ions that are positively loaded gain electrons from the cathode and form molten aluminium.
  • Oxide ions lose anode electrons and form molecules of oxygen

In the electrochemical sequence means reactivity series, aluminium is too big to be removed from its ore by carbon reduction. The required temperatures are too high to be economical.

Aluminium Uses 

The list of uses of aluminium is given below.

  1. Aluminium is used in a wide range of applications in the field of transport, construction, etc.
  2. Aluminium foils are used in the food industries for wrapping food.
  3. The dust of this metal is used in paints.
  4. It is used in the extraction of manganese and chromium from its oxides.
  5. As it is a soft metal and it can be moulded into any shape it is used in the manufacturing of storage cans.
  6. Aluminium after iron is the most commonly used metal.
  7. It is mostly used with another metal in an alloy, meaning that it is blended with another metal to create another compound with some desirable characteristics-like stainless steel.

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Uses of Aluminium

  • Aluminium being light, a good conductor of heat, corrosion-resistant and cheap is used in making household appliances.
  • It is used in electric transmission as it is a good conductor of electricity.

Frequently Asked Questions – FAQs

How Aluminium is extracted from its ore?

Bauxite is also aluminium ore. To obtain aluminium oxide, bauxite is purified, a white powder form in which aluminium can be extracted. Electrolysis is used for extraction.

Why is Aluminium extracted from alumina?

Aluminium is more reactive than carbon and has more oxygen affinity, so aluminium can not be reduced by burning, but is removed by electrolytic reduction.

What is aluminium used for?

Aluminium is a lightweight, silver-white metal. It’s gentle, malevolent. In a wide variety of products, aluminium is used from bottles, foils, kitchen utensils, window frames, beer kegs and parts of the aircraft.

What are the properties of Aluminium?

Pure aluminium has high electrical conductivity and is flexible, ductile, corrosion-resistant. Aluminium is being used in an ever-increasing number of applications by using various combinations of its advantageous properties such as strength, lightness, corrosion resistance, recyclability, and formability.

What are the types of Aluminium?

There are two main classifications, casting alloys and wrought alloys, both further subdivided into the heat-treatable and non-heat-treatable categories. Approximately 85% of aluminium is used for wrought items, such as rolled metal, foils and extrusions.

Why is Aluminium ore purified?

Bauxite is also aluminium ore. To obtain aluminium oxide, bauxite is purified, a white powder form which aluminium can be removed. It is an aluminium alloy with a melting point greater than that of aluminium oxide. Cryolite use reduces some production costs involved with the mining of aluminium.

Can Aluminium be extracted by smelting?

The primary use of Smelting is to make metal from the ore. It includes mining of iron from iron ore, and mining of copper and other base metals from its ores. Yet the smelting process does not produce aluminium.

For detailed information on the Extraction of Aluminium: Ores and Minerals, download BYJU’S – The Learning App.

1 Comment

  1. Thank you Byju’s for this

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