|Atomic Mass||28.0855 g.mol -1|
|Discovered by||Jöns Jacob Berzelius in 1824|
Table of Contents
Chemical Properties of Silicon
|Group||14||Melting point||1414°C, 2577°F, 1687 K|
|Period||3||Boiling point||3265°C, 5909°F, 3538 K|
|Block||p||Density (g cm−3)||2.3296|
|Atomic number||14||Relative atomic mass||28.085|
|State at 20°C||Solid||Key isotopes||28Si, 30Si|
|Electron configuration||[Ne]3s2 3p2||CAS number||7440-21-3|
|ChemSpider ID||4574465||ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database|
What is Silicon?
- Silicon (Si) is a close relative of carbon (C) in the periodic table.
- The atomic number of silicon is 14 and the symbol Si.
- It is a member of group 14 with four valence electrons.
- Silicon makes up 27.7% of the earth’s crust.
Polymers of Silicon
Silanes are members of homologous series of silicon hydrides, and they are very strong reducing agents. They catch fire very easily and are very reactive when exposed to air. They are not stable at room temperature.
Silicides have structures that are similar to carbides and borides and therefore, the heats of formation are usually similar to that of carbides and borides of the same elements.
These are also known as silicon dioxide and their major constituents are granite and sandstone.
Silicon carbides and silicon react with stable halogens forming silicon tetrahalides. These silicon tetrahalides readily hydrolyse in water, unlike carbon tetrahalides.
5. Silicate Minerals
About 95% of the earth’s rocks consists of silicate minerals. If the mass is taken into consideration, then around 28% is of the earth’s crust consists of silicon.
6. Silicic Acids
Uses of Silicon
- The element is a major constituent in ceramics and bricks.
- Being a semiconductor, the element is put into use for making transistors.
- Silicon is widely used in computer chips and solar cells.
- It is a vital component of Portland cement.
- Silicon is used in the production of fire bricks.
- Several waterproofing systems employ silicones as a component.
- Silicon is used in many mould release agents and moulding compounds.
- It is also a component of ferrosilicon – an alloy widely used in the steel industry.
Properties of Silicon
- Silicon could be found attached to other elements, for instance, oxygen (O).
- Silicates are the rocks which contain both silicon and oxygen.
- When decontaminated, it is a greyish crystal that looks metallic.
- Although it may be glistening like metal, it is not a metal.
Certain Facts About Silicon
- Silicon was isolated and forced to develop its first crystals in the year 1854.
- In the periodic table, one can find silicon just underneath carbon in the third row of the periodic table.
- Silicon’s electrons are arranged in a makeup comparable to carbon.