The chemical formula of a compound is a symbolic representation of its chemical composition. Chemical formulae provide insight into the elements that constitute the molecules of a compound and also the ratio in which the atoms of these elements combine to form such molecules. For example, the chemical formula of water, which is H2O, suggests that two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom to form one molecule of water.
Table of Contents
Importance of Chemistry FormulasTypes of Chemistry Formulas or Chemical FormulaHow to write Chemical FormulaList of Chemical Compound Formula
Importance of Chemical Formulae
 Chemical formulae provide insight into the chemical composition of a compound.
 They also represent the ratios in which the constituent elements combine to form the compound.
 The chemical formula of a compound is crucial while representing it in a chemical equation.
 Chemical formulae can also be employed to represent ions, free radicals and other chemical species.
Types of Chemical Formulae
While the term ‘chemical formula’ typically refers to the molecular formula of a compound (which denotes the total number of atoms of each constituent element in one molecule of the compound), the compositions of chemical compounds can be expressed in several ways, as listed in this subsection.
Molecular Formula:
The molecular formula provides insight into the number of elements present in a compound. In molecular formulae, the elements are denoted by their respective symbols (as in the periodic table) and the number of atoms of each element in the molecule is written in subscript. For example the molecular formula for glucose is C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}.
Empirical Formula:
The empirical formula of a chemical compound represents the ratio of the elements present in that compound. Empirical formulae are usually obtained based on the analysis of experimental data. The empirical formula for glucose is CH2O. Empirical Formulae can be derived from the molecular formulae.
Structural Formula:
As the name suggests, the structural formula of a chemical compound provides insight into the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.
How to write Chemical Formula
In order to write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of the elements present in the compound, formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. Following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula.

 Most of the compounds are binary compounds, i.e. they have two elements. Compounds with more than two elements are also known
 An atom with a positive charge is called a cation whereas an atom with a negative charge is called an anion
 For a compound containing a metal and a nonmetal, the metal is named first followed by the nonmetal. For example: NaCl which consists of Na^{+} (metal ion) and Cl^{–} (nonmetal ion)
 Anions having 1 negative charge usually have a suffix as –ide. For example: F^{–} – Floride
 Anions having oxy
 anions (oxygen + another element) usually have a suffix as –ate. For example – SO_{4}^{2} (Sulphate)
 When a polyatomic anion has H^{–} ion, bi or hydrogen is used as a suffix. For example – HCO_{3}^{–}Bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonate
 Some polyatomic anions can be named as:
Chemical Formula  Polyatomic Anion 
NH_{2}^{–}  Amide 
PO_{4}^{3}  Phosphate 
CN^{–}  Cyanide 
Solved Examples
Problem 1: In one molecule of the compound, determine how many atoms of every element are present for each one of these chemical formulas.
 HCN – hydrogen cyanide –It’s a toxic gas
 C_{18}H_{21}NO_{3} – codeine, a painkilling drug
 Ca_{10}(PO_{4})_{6}(OH)_{2} – Hydroxyapatite, that is present in the enamel of the tooth
Answer:
 One atom is present in each of the elements hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Remember that the subscript 1 is understood when no subscript is mentioned.
 This formula points out that in one molecule of the compound, 18 carbon atoms, 21 hydrogen atoms, one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms are existent.
 There are ten calcium atoms. The amounts of phosphorous, hydrogen and oxygen are affected by the subscripts outside the parentheses. There are six phosphorous atoms and two hydrogen atoms existent. Oxygen atoms exist in two positions in the formula. There are overall 26 oxygen atoms: two from the OH subunit (2×1) and 24 from the PO_{4} subunits (6×4)
List of Chemical Compound Formula
There are several chemical formulae, however, here is a list of most important Chemical Formulas in chemistry.
Sl.No 
Name of the Chemical Compound 
Formula 
1  Acetic acid formula  CH_{3}COOH 
2  Aluminium hydroxide formula  Al(OH)_{3} 
3  Acetate formula  CH_{3}COO 
4  Acetone formula  C_{3}H_{6}O 
5  Aluminium acetate formula  Al_{2}O(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{4} 
6  Aluminum bromide formula  AlBr_{3} 
7  Aluminum carbonate formula  Al_{2}(CO_{3})_{3} 
8  Aluminum chloride formula  AlCl_{3} 
9  Aluminum fluoride formula  AlF_{3} 
10  Aluminum formula  Al 
11  Aluminum iodide formula  AlI_{3} 
12  Aluminum oxide formula  Al_{2}O_{3} 
13  Aluminum phosphate formula  AlPO_{4} 
14  Amino acid formula  R(NH_{2})COOH 
15  Ammonia formula  NH_{4} 
16  Ammonium dichromate formula  Cr2H8N2O7 
17  Ammonium acetate formula  C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}NH_{4} 
18  Ammonium bicarbonate formula  NH_{4}HCO_{3} 
19  Ammonium bromide formula  NH_{4}Br 
20  Ammonium carbonate formula  (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} 
21  Ammonium chloride formula  NH4Cl 
22  Ammonium hydroxide formula  NH4OH 
23  Ammonium iodide formula  NH4I 
24  Ammonium nitrate formula  NH4NO3 
25  Aluminium sulfide formula  Al_{2}S_{3} 
26  Ammonium nitrite formula  NH4NO2 
27  Ammonium oxide formula  (NH4)2O 
28  Ammonium phosphate formula  (NH4)3PO4 
29  Ammonium sulfate formula  (NH4)2SO4 
30  Ammonium sulfide formula  (NH4)2S 
31  Argon gas formula  Ar 
32  Ascorbic acid formula  C6H8O6 
33  Barium acetate formula  Ba(C2H3O2)2 
34  Barium bromide formula  BaBr2 
35  Barium chloride formula  BaCl2 
36  Barium fluoride formula  BaF2 
37  Barium hydroxide formula  Ba(OH)2 
38  Barium iodide formula  BaI2 
39  Barium nitrate formula  Ba(NO3)2 
40  Barium oxide formula  BaO 
41  Barium phosphate formula  Ba3O8P2 
42  Barium sulfate formula  BaSO4 
43  Benzene formula  C6H6 
44  Benzoic acid formula  C7H6O2 
45  Bicarbonate formula  CHO3 
46  Bleach formula  NaClO 
47  Boric acid formula  H3BO3 
48  Potassium Bromate formula  KBrO_{3} 
49  Bromic acid formula  HBrO3 
50  Bromine formula  Br 
51  Butane formula  C4H10 
52  Butanoic acid formula  C4H8O2 
53  Calcium acetate formula  Ca(COO)2 
54  Calcium bromide formula  CaBr2 
55  Calcium carbonate formula  CaCO3 
56  Calcium hydride formula  CaH2 
57  Calcium hydroxide formula  Ca(OH)2 
58  Calcium iodide formula  CaI2 
59  Calcium nitrate formula  Ca(NO3)2 
60  Calcium oxide formula  CaO 
61  Carbon monoxide formula  CO 
62  Carbon tetrachloride formula  CCl4 
63  Carbonic acid formula  H2CO3 
64  Calcium phosphate formula  Ca3(PO4)2 
65  Carbonic acid formula  H2CO3 
66  Citric acid formula  C6H8O7 
67  Chlorate formula  ClO3 
68  Chlorine formula  Cl2 
69  Chlorine gas formula  Cl2 
70  Chlorous acid formula  HClO2 
71  Chromate formula  CrO42 
72  Chromic acid formula  H2CrO4 
73  Citric acid formula  C6H8O7 
74  Copper ii carbonate formula  CuCO3 
75  Copper ii nitrate formula  Cu(NO3)2 
76  Cyanide formula  CN 
77  Dichromate formula  K2Cr2O7 
78  Dihydrogen monoxide formula  H2O 
79  Dinitrogen monoxide formula  N2O 
80  Dinitrogen pentoxide formula  N2O5 
81  Dinitrogen trioxide formula  N2O3 
82  Ethanol formula  C2H5OH 
83  Iron oxide formula  Fe2O3 
84  Ethylene glycol formula  C2H6O2 
85  Fluorine gas formula  F_{2} 
86  Aluminum bromide formula  AlBr_{3} 
87  Aluminum sulfide formula  Al2S_{3} 
88  Ammonium carbonate formula  (NH4)2CO_{3} 
89  Ammonium nitrate formula  (NH4)(NO3) 
90  Ammonium phosphate formula  (NH4)3PO4 
91  Barium chloride formula  BaCl2 
92  Barium sulfate formula  BaSO4 
93  Calcium nitrate formula  Ca(NO3)2 
94  Carbon monoxide formula  CO 
95  Carbon tetrachloride formula  CCl4 
96  Carbonic acid formula  H2CO3 
97  Hydrofluoric acid formula  HF 
98  Hydroiodic acid formula  HI 
99  Hypochlorous acid formula  HClO 
100  Lithium phosphate formula  Li3PO4 
101  Magnesium nitrate formula  MgNO3 
102  Magnesium phosphate formula  Mg3(PO4)2 
103  Nitrogen monoxide formula  NO 
104  Nitrous acid formula  HNO2 
105  Potassium carbonate formula  K2CO3 
106  Potassium iodide formula  KI 
107  Potassium nitrate formula  KNO3 
108  Potassium phosphate formula  KH2PO4 
109  Sodium carbonate formula  Na2CO3 
110  Sodium oxide formula  Na2O 
111  Fructose chemical formula  C6H12O6 
112  Glycerol formula  C3H8O3 
113  Helium gas formula  He 
114  Hexane formula  C6H14 
115  Hydrobromic acid formula  HBr 
116  Hydrochloric acid formula  HCl 
117  Hydrocyanic acid formula  HCN 
118  Hydrofluoric acid formula  HF 
119  Hydrogen carbonate formula  CHO3 
120  Hydrogen gas formula  H2 
121  Hydrogen peroxide formula  H2O2 
122  Hydrogen phosphate formula  H3PO_{4} 
123  Hydrogen sulfate formula  HSO4 
124  Hydroiodic acid formula  HI 
125  Hydrosulfuric acid formula  H2SO4 
126  Hydroxide formula  OH 
127  Hypobromous acid formula  HBrO 
128  Hypochlorite formula  NaClO 
129  Hypochlorous acid formula  HClO 
130  Hypoiodous acid formula  HIO 
131  Iodic acid formula  HIO3 
132  Iodide formula  I2 
133  Iodine formula  I2 
134  Iron iii nitrate formula  Fe(NO3)3 
135  Iron ii oxide formula  FeO 
136  Iron iii carbonate formula  Fe2(CO3)3 
137  Iron iii hydroxide formula  Fe(OH)_{3} 
138  Iron iii oxide formula  Fe2O3 
139  Iron iii chloride formula  FeCl_{3} 
140  Lactic acid formula  C3H6O3 
141  Lead acetate formula  Pb(C2H3O2)2 
142  Lead ii acetate formula  Pb(C2H3O2)2 
143  Lead iodide formula  PbI2 
144  Lead iv oxide formula  PbO2 
145  Lead nitrate formula  Pb(NO3)2 
146  Lithium bromide formula  LiBr 
147  Lithium chloride formula  LiCl2 
148  Lithium hydroxide formula  LiOH 
149  Lithium iodide formula  LiI2 
150  Lithium oxide formula  Li2O 
151  Lithium phosphate formula  Li3PO4 
152  Magnesium acetate formula  Mg(CH3COO)2 
153  Magnesium bicarbonate formula  MgCO3 
154  Magnesium carbonate formula  MgCO3 
155  Magnesium chloride formula  MgCl2 
156  Magnesium hydroxide formula  Mg(OH)3 
157  Magnesium iodide formula  MgI2 
158  Magnesium nitrate formula  Mg(NO3)2 
159  Magnesium nitride formula  Mg3N2 
160  Magnesium carbonate formula  MgCO_{3} 
161  Magnesium bromide formula  MgBr_{2} 
162  Magnesium oxide formula  MgO 
163  Magnesium phosphate formula  Mg3(PO4)2 
164  Magnesium sulfate formula  MgSO4 
165  Magnesium sulfide formula  MgS 
166  Methane formula  CH4 
167  Methanol formula  CH3OH 
168  Nickel acetate formula  Ni(C2H3O2)2 
169  Nickel nitrate formula  Ni(NO3)2 
170  Nitric acid formula  HNO3 
171  Nitride formula  N3 
172  Nitrite formula  NO2− 
173  Nitrogen dioxide formula  NO2 
174  Nitrogen monoxide formula  NO 
175  Nitrous acid formula  HNO2 
176  Oxalate formula  C2O42− 
177  Oxalic acid formula  H2C2O4 
178  Oxygen formula  O2 
179  Ozone formula  O3 
180  Perbromic acid formula  HBrO4 
181  Potassium Permanganate formula  KMnO4 
182  Permanganate ion formula  MnO4 
183  Phosphate formula  PO43 
184  Sodium hydrogen phosphate formula  Na_{2}HPO_{4} 
185  Sodium formate formula  CHNaO2 
186  Phosphoric acid formula  H3PO4 
187  Phosphorus pentachloride formula  PCl5 
188  Phosphorus trichloride formula  PCl3 
189  Potassium acetate formula  CH3CO2K 
190  Potassium bicarbonate formula  KHCO3 
191  Potassium carbonate formula  K2CO3 
192  Potassium chlorate formula  KClO3 
193  Potassium hydrogen phosphate formula  K_{2}HPO_{4} 
194  Potassium chloride formula  KCl 
195  Potassium chromate formula  CrK2O4 
196  Potassium cyanide formula  KCN 
197  Potassium dichromate formula  K2Cr2O7 
198  Potassium fluoride formula  KF 
199  Potassium hydroxide formula  KOH 
200  Potassium hypochlorite formula  KClO3 
201  Potassium iodide formula  KI 
201  Potassium dihydrogen phosphate formula  KH_{2}PO_{4} 
203  Potassium nitrate formula  KNO3 
204  Potassium nitrite formula  KNO2 
205  Potassium oxide formula  K2O 
206  Potassium iodate formula  KIO_{3} 
207  Potassium phosphate formula  KH2PO4 
208  Potassium sulfite formula  K2SO3 
209  Salicylic acid formula  C7H6O3 
210  Silicon dioxide formula  SiO2 
211  Silver acetate formula  AgC2H3O2 
212  Silver carbonate formula  Ag2CO3 
213  Silver chloride formula  AgCl 
214  Silver nitrate formula  AgNO3 
215  Silver oxide formula  Ag2O 
216  Silver phosphate formula  Ag3PO4 
217  Sodium acetate formula  C2H3NaO2 
218  Sodium bicarbonate formula  NaHCO3 
219  Sodium bromide formula  NaBr 
220  Sodium thiosulfate formula  Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3} 
221  Sodium carbonate formula  Na2CO3 
222  Sodium chloride formula  NaCl 
223  Sodium chromate formula  Na2CrO4 
224  Sodium citrate formula  Na3C6H5O7 
225  Sodium cyanide formula  NaCN 
226  Sodium dichromate formula  Na2Cr2O7 
227  Sodium fluoride formula  NaF 
228  Sodium hydroxide formula  NaOH 
229  Sodium hypochlorite formula  NaClO 
230  Sodium iodide formula  NaI 
231  Uric acid formula  C_{5}H_{4}N_{4}O_{3} 
232  Sodium nitrate formula  NaNO3 
233  Sodium nitride formula  Na3N 
234  Sodium nitrite formula  NaNO2 
235  Sodium oxide formula  Na2O 
236  Sodium peroxide formula  Na2O2 
237  Sodium phosphate formula  Na3PO4 
238  Sodium sulfate formula  Na2SO4 
239  Sodium sulfide formula  Na2S 
240  Sodium sulfite formula  Na2SO3 
241  Strontium chloride formula  SrCl2 
242  Strontium nitrate formula  Sr(NO3)2 
243  Sucrose formula  C12H22O11 
244  Sugar formula  C12H22O11 
245  Sulfate ion formula  SO42− 
246  Sulfur dioxide formula  SO2 
247  Sulfur trioxide formula  SO3 
248  Sulfuric acid formula  H2SO4 
249  Sulfurous acid formula  H2SO3 
250  Tartaric acid formula  C4H6O6 
251  Toluene formula  C7H8 
252  Urea formula  CH4N2O 
253  Vinegar formula  C2H4O2 
254  Zinc acetate formula  Zn(O2CCH3)2 
255  Zinc carbonate formula  ZnCO3 
256  Zinc chloride formula  ZnCl2 
257  Zinc hydroxide formula  Zn(OH)2 
258  Zinc iodide formula  ZnI2 
259  Zinc nitrate formula  Zn(NO3)2 
260  Zinc phosphate formula  Zn3(PO4)2 
261  Zinc sulfate formula  ZnSO4 
262  Zinc sulfide formula  ZnS 
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please what is the formulae for lithium chloride
The chemical formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.
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The chemical formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.
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