Chemical Formula Of Common Compounds

The chemical formula of a compound is a symbolic representation of its chemical composition. Chemical formulae provide insight into the elements that constitute the molecules of a compound and also the ratio in which the atoms of these elements combine to form such molecules. For example, the chemical formula of water, which is H2O, suggests that two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom to form one molecule of water.

Table of Contents

Importance of Chemistry FormulasTypes of Chemistry Formulas or Chemical FormulaHow to write Chemical FormulaList of Chemical Compound Formula

Importance of Chemical Formulae

  • Chemical formulae provide insight into the chemical composition of a compound.
  • They also represent the ratios in which the constituent elements combine to form the compound.
  • The chemical formula of a compound is crucial while representing it in a chemical equation.
  • Chemical formulae can also be employed to represent ions, free radicals and other chemical species.

Types of Chemical Formulae

While the term ‘chemical formula’ typically refers to the molecular formula of a compound (which denotes the total number of atoms of each constituent element in one molecule of the compound), the compositions of chemical compounds can be expressed in several ways, as listed in this subsection.

Molecular Formula:

The molecular formula provides insight into the number of elements present in a compound. In molecular formulae, the elements are denoted by their respective symbols (as in the periodic table) and the number of atoms of each element in the molecule is written in subscript. For example- the molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6.

Empirical Formula:

The empirical formula of a chemical compound represents the ratio of the elements present in that compound. Empirical formulae are usually obtained based on the analysis of experimental data. The empirical formula for glucose is CH2O. Empirical Formulae can be derived from the molecular formulae.

Structural Formula:

As the name suggests, the structural formula of a chemical compound provides insight into the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.

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How to write Chemical Formula

In order to write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of the elements present in the compound, formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. Following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula.

    • Most of the compounds are binary compounds, i.e. they have two elements. Compounds with more than two elements are also known
    • An atom with a positive charge is called a cation whereas an atom with a negative charge is called an anion
    • For a compound containing a metal and a non-metal, the metal is named first followed by the non-metal. For example: NaCl which consists of Na+ (metal ion) and Cl (non-metal ion)
    • Anions having -1 negative charge usually have a suffix as –ide. For example: F – Floride
    • Anions having oxyanions (oxygen + another element) usually have a suffix as –ate. For example – SO42- (Sulphate)
    • When a polyatomic anion has H ion, bi- or hydrogen is used as a suffix. For example – HCO3-Bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonate
    • Some polyatomic anions can be named as:
Chemical Formula Polyatomic Anion
NH2 Amide
PO43- Phosphate
CN Cyanide

Solved Examples

Problem 1: In one molecule of the compound, determine how many atoms of every element are present for each one of these chemical formulas.

  1.       HCN – hydrogen cyanide –It’s a toxic gas
  2.       C18H21NO3 – codeine, a painkilling drug
  3.       Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2 – Hydroxyapatite, that is present in the enamel of the tooth


  1. One atom is present in each of the elements hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Remember that the subscript 1 is understood when no subscript is mentioned.
  2. This formula points out that in one molecule of the compound, 18 carbon atoms, 21 hydrogen atoms, one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms are existent.
  3. There are ten calcium atoms. The amounts of phosphorous, hydrogen and oxygen are affected by the subscripts outside the parentheses. There are six phosphorous atoms and two hydrogen atoms existent. Oxygen atoms exist in two positions in the formula. There are overall 26 oxygen atoms: two from the OH subunit (2×1) and 24 from the PO4 subunits (6×4)

List of Chemical Compound Formula

There are several chemical formulae, however, here is a list of most important Chemical Formulas in chemistry.


Name of the Chemical Compound


1 Acetic acid formula CH3COOH
2 Aluminium hydroxide formula Al(OH)3
3 Acetate formula CH3COO-
4 Acetone formula C3H6O
5 Aluminium acetate formula C6H9AlO6
6 Aluminium bromide formula AlBr3
7 Aluminium carbonate formula Al2(CO3)3
8 Aluminium chloride formula AlCl3
9 Aluminium fluoride formula AlF3
10 Aluminium formula Al
11 Aluminium iodide formula AlI3
12 Aluminium oxide formula Al2O3
13 Aluminium phosphate formula AlPO4
14 Amino acid formula H2NCHRCOOH
15 Ammonia formula NH3
16 Ammonium dichromate formula Cr2H8N2O7
17 Ammonium acetate formula C2H3O2NH4
18 Ammonium bicarbonate formula NH4HCO3
19 Ammonium bromide formula NH4Br
20 Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3
21 Ammonium chloride formula NH4Cl
22 Ammonium hydroxide formula NH4OH
23 Ammonium iodide formula NH4I
24 Ammonium nitrate formula NH4NO3
25 Aluminium sulfide formula Al2S3
26 Ammonium nitrite formula NH4NO2
27 Ammonium oxide formula (NH4)2O
28 Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4
29 Ammonium sulfate formula (NH4)2SO4
30 Ammonium sulfide formula (NH4)2S
31 Argon gas formula Ar
32 Ascorbic acid formula C6H8O6
33 Barium acetate formula Ba(C2H3O2)2
34 Barium bromide formula BaBr2
35 Barium chloride formula BaCl2
36 Barium fluoride formula BaF2
37 Barium hydroxide formula Ba(OH)2
38 Barium iodide formula BaI2
39 Barium nitrate formula Ba(NO3)2
40 Barium oxide formula BaO
41 Barium phosphate formula Ba3O8P2
42 Barium sulfate formula BaSO4
43 Benzene formula C6H6
44 Benzoic acid formula C7H6O2
45 Bicarbonate formula CHO3
46 Bleach formula NaClO
47 Boric acid formula H3BO3
48 Potassium Bromate formula KBrO3
49 Bromic acid formula HBrO3
50 Bromine formula Br
51 Butane formula C4H10
52 Butanoic acid formula C4H8O2
53 Calcium acetate formula CHCaO
54 Calcium bromide formula CaBr2
55 Calcium carbonate formula CaCO3
56 Calcium hydride formula CaH2
57 Calcium hydroxide formula Ca(OH)2
58 Calcium iodide formula CaI2
59 Calcium nitrate formula Ca(NO3)2
60 Calcium oxide formula CaO
61 Carbon monoxide formula CO
62 Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4
63 Carbonic acid formula H2CO3
64 Calcium phosphate formula Ca3(PO4)2
65 Carbonic acid formula H2CO3
66 Citric acid formula C6H8O7
67 Chlorate formula ClO3
68 Chlorine formula Cl
69 Chlorine gas formula Cl2
70 Chlorous acid formula HClO2
71 Chromate formula CrO42-
72 Chromic acid formula H2CrO4
73 Citric acid formula C6H8O7
74 Copper ii carbonate formula CuCO3
75 Copper ii nitrate formula Cu(NO3)2
76 Cyanide formula CN
77 Dichromate formula K2Cr2O7
78 Dihydrogen monoxide formula H2O
79 Dinitrogen monoxide formula N2O
80 Dinitrogen pentoxide formula N2O5
81 Dinitrogen trioxide formula N2O3
82 Ethanol formula C2H5OH
83  Iron oxide formula Fe2O3
84 Ethylene glycol formula C2H6O2
85 Fluorine gas formula F2
86 Aluminum bromide formula AlBr3
87 Aluminum sulfide formula Al2S3
88 Ammonium carbonate formula (NH4)2CO3
89 Ammonium nitrate formula (NH4)(NO3)
90 Ammonium phosphate formula (NH4)3PO4
91 Barium chloride formula BaCl2
92 Barium sulfate formula BaSO4
93 Calcium nitrate formula Ca(NO3)2
94 Carbon monoxide formula CO
95 Carbon tetrachloride formula CCl4
96 Carbonic acid formula H2CO3
97 Hydrofluoric acid formula HF
98 Hydroiodic acid formula HI
99 Hypochlorous acid formula HClO
100 Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4
101 Magnesium nitrate formula MgNO3
102 Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2
103 Nitrogen monoxide formula NO
104 Nitrous acid formula HNO2
105 Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3
106 Potassium iodide formula KI
107 Potassium nitrate formula KNO3
108 Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4
109 Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3
110 Sodium oxide formula Na2O
111 Fructose chemical formula C6H12O6
112 Glycerol formula C3H8O3
113 Helium gas formula He
114 Hexane formula C6H14
115 Hydrobromic acid formula HBr
116 Hydrochloric acid formula HCl
117 Hydrocyanic acid formula HCN
118 Hydrofluoric acid formula HF
119 Hydrogen carbonate formula CHO3
120 Hydrogen gas formula H2
121 Hydrogen peroxide formula H2O2
122 Hydrogen phosphate formula H3PO4
123 Hydrogen sulfate formula HSO4
124 Hydroiodic acid formula HI
125 Hydrosulfuric acid formula H2SO4
126 Hydroxide ion formula OH
127 Hypobromous acid formula HBrO
128 Hypochlorite formula NaClO
129 Hypochlorous acid formula HClO
130 Hypoiodous acid formula HIO
131 Iodic acid formula HIO3
132 Iodide ion formula I
133 Iodine formula I2
134 Iron (iii) nitrate formula Fe(NO3)3
135 Iron (ii) oxide formula FeO
136 Iron (iii) carbonate formula Fe2(CO3)3
137 Iron (iii) hydroxide formula Fe(OH)3
138 Iron (iii) oxide formula Fe2O3
139 Iron (iii) chloride formula FeCl3
140 Lactic acid formula C3H6O3
141 Lead acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
142 Lead (ii) acetate formula Pb(C2H3O2)2
143 Lead iodide formula PbI2
144 Lead (iv) oxide formula PbO2
145 Lead nitrate formula Pb(NO3)2
146 Lithium bromide formula LiBr
147 Lithium chloride formula LiCl
148 Lithium hydroxide formula LiOH
149 Lithium iodide formula LiI
150 Lithium oxide formula Li2O
151 Lithium phosphate formula Li3PO4
152 Magnesium acetate formula Mg(CH3COO)2
153 Magnesium bicarbonate formula C2H2MgO6
154 Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
155 Magnesium chloride formula MgCl2
156 Magnesium hydroxide formula Mg(OH)2
157 Magnesium iodide formula MgI2
158 Magnesium nitrate formula Mg(NO3)2
159 Magnesium nitride formula Mg3N2
160 Magnesium carbonate formula MgCO3
161 Magnesium bromide formula MgBr2
162 Magnesium oxide formula MgO
163 Magnesium phosphate formula Mg3(PO4)2
164 Magnesium sulfate formula MgSO4
165 Magnesium sulfide formula MgS
166 Methane formula CH4
167 Methanol formula CH3OH
168 Nickel acetate formula Ni(C2H3O2)2
169 Nickel nitrate formula Ni(NO3)2
170 Nitric acid formula HNO3
171 Nitride formula N3
172 Nitrite formula NO2
173 Nitrogen dioxide formula NO2
174 Nitrogen monoxide formula NO
175 Nitrous acid formula HNO2
176 Oxalate formula C2O42−
177 Oxalic acid formula H2C2O4
178 Oxygen formula O2
179 Ozone formula O3
180 Perbromic acid formula HBrO4
181 Potassium Permanganate formula KMnO4
182 Permanganate ion formula MnO4
183 Phosphate formula PO43-
184 Sodium hydrogen phosphate formula Na2HPO4
185 Sodium formate formula HCOONa
186 Phosphoric acid formula H3PO4
187 Phosphorus pentachloride formula PCl5
188 Phosphorus trichloride formula PCl3
189 Potassium acetate formula CH3CO2K
190 Potassium bicarbonate formula KHCO3
191 Potassium carbonate formula K2CO3
192 Potassium chlorate formula KClO3
193 Potassium hydrogen phosphate formula K2HPO4
194 Potassium chloride formula KCl
195 Potassium chromate formula CrK2O4
196 Potassium cyanide formula KCN
197 Potassium dichromate formula K2Cr2O7
198 Potassium fluoride formula KF
199 Potassium hydroxide formula KOH
200 Potassium hypochlorite formula KClO
201 Potassium iodide formula KI
201 Potassium dihydrogen phosphate formula KH2PO4
203 Potassium nitrate formula KNO3
204 Potassium nitrite formula KNO2
205 Potassium oxide formula K2O
206 Potassium iodate formula KIO3
207 Potassium phosphate formula KH2PO4
208 Potassium sulfite formula K2SO3
209 Salicylic acid formula C7H6O3
210 Silicon dioxide formula SiO2
211 Silver acetate formula AgC2H3O2
212 Silver carbonate formula Ag2CO3
213 Silver chloride formula AgCl
214 Silver nitrate formula AgNO3
215 Silver oxide formula Ag2O
216 Silver phosphate formula Ag3PO4
217 Sodium acetate formula C2H3NaO2
218 Sodium bicarbonate formula NaHCO3
219 Sodium bromide formula NaBr
220 Sodium thiosulfate formula Na2S2O3
221 Sodium carbonate formula Na2CO3
222 Sodium chloride formula NaCl
223 Sodium chromate formula Na2CrO4
224 Sodium citrate formula Na3C6H5O7
225 Sodium cyanide formula NaCN
226 Sodium dichromate formula Na2Cr2O7
227 Sodium fluoride formula NaF
228 Sodium hydroxide formula NaOH
229 Sodium hypochlorite formula NaClO
230 Sodium iodide formula NaI
231 Uric acid formula C5H4N4O3
232 Sodium nitrate formula NaNO3
233 Sodium nitride formula Na3N
234 Sodium nitrite formula NaNO2
235 Sodium oxide formula Na2O
236 Sodium peroxide formula Na2O2
237 Sodium phosphate formula Na3PO4
238 Sodium sulfate formula Na2SO4
239 Sodium sulfide formula Na2S
240 Sodium sulfite formula Na2SO3
241 Strontium chloride formula SrCl2
242 Strontium nitrate formula Sr(NO3)2
243 Sucrose formula C12H22O11
244 Sugar formula C12H22O11
245 Sulfate ion formula SO42−
246 Sulfur dioxide formula SO2
247 Sulfur trioxide formula SO3
248 Sulfuric acid formula H2SO4
249 Sulfurous acid formula H2SO3
250 Tartaric acid formula C4H6O6
251 Toluene formula C7H8
252 Urea formula CH4N2O
253 Vinegar formula C2H4O2
254 Zinc acetate formula Zn(O2CCH3)2
255 Zinc carbonate formula ZnCO3
256 Zinc chloride formula ZnCl2
257 Zinc hydroxide formula Zn(OH)2
258 Zinc iodide formula ZnI2
259 Zinc nitrate formula Zn(NO3)2
260 Zinc phosphate formula Zn3(PO4)2
261 Zinc sulfate formula ZnSO4
262 Zinc sulfide formula ZnS

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  1. this site helped me a lot for my examination

  2. Good

  3. Fantastic

  4. Best formula in chemistry

    • H2O is the simplest and best chemical formula

      • For water, the molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, so its molecular formula is H2O. This also represents the simplest ratio of atoms in the molecule, so its empirical formula is H2O.

  5. Very interesting topic kudos to you

  6. please what is the formulae for lithium chloride

  7. Byju’s is really very nice is very much helpful and interesting

  8. that was extremely helpful

  9. mind blowing u made my work so easy and amazing thanks for the information

  10. mind blowing u made my work so easy and amazing thanks for the information

    that was extremely helpful
    The chemical formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.

  11. Thanks byjus .my aspirations always with you . Thank for making this chart ❤️ . From now I have all formula in a single place


  12. Please tell me chemical effect

    • The passage of an electric current through a conducting solution causes chemical reactions. The process in which chemical reaction takes place in a solution on passing electricity through it is because of the chemical effect of current.

  13. The chemical formula for magnesium nitrate is Mg(No3)2.

  14. Please tell me Chemical Formula for –
    Acetic Acid and Ammonia
    Thank You Byju’s

  15. While writing chemical formula for metal and non metal we use criss cross method but what should we for writing chemical formulas for non metal and non metal?

    • A covalent or molecular compound is formed when two nonmetals combine (i.e., one that is held together by covalent bonds which result from the sharing of electrons).

      In many cases, two elements can combine in a variety of ways to form entirely different compounds. (With the exception of metals that can form more than one charge, this cannot happen with ionic compounds.) Carbon, for example, can share electrons with one oxygen to form CO (carbon monoxide), or with two oxygens to form CO2 (carbon dioxide). As a result, how much of each element is present in the compound must be specified.
      Read more Naming Covalent Compounds