Chemistry is said to be a subject mostly comprising of reactions along with formulas. We come across various chemical substances in our daily life. Some of the substances we use in our house such as the staples present in the medicine cabinet comprise of chemical substances. All these chemicals are bound up with atoms in a fixed proportion and also these are arranged in a certain way. So, to figure out what kind of proportions are these and their arrangement within the substance, the chemical formula is more needed.
The chemical formula gives us a clear understanding regarding the chemical substances, like how many and what the chemical elements of the Periodic table consists of, along with the way of they are arranged. There are about some chemistry formulas coming in the chemistry as given below.
Importance of Chemistry Formulas
Chemical Formula in Chemistry are like a shorthand used to represent the elements in a compound. The Periodic Table has elements along with the symbols. These Chemical symbols are used for representing different individual elements like H is hydrogen, O for oxygen, Ca for calcium, Na for Sodium and so on. The Substances which have more than two or more atoms bonded together, and also more than one or more elements are called as compounds. Hence to know the nature of these chemical compounds and their reactions, chemistry formulas plays a vital role. It gives an idea of how a substance has formed and the proportion of elements involved in that particular reaction.
Types of Chemistry Formulas or Chemical Formula
In chemistry, there are various chemical formula, some of them are given below.
Molecular Formula- The molecular formula gives you the number of elements present in a compound. In this formula, the elements are written in the form of their symbols as in the periodic table where the number of atoms is written as a subscript. For example- the molecular formula for glucose is written as C6H12O6.
Empirical Formula- This formula tells about the ratio of the elements present in a compound. This formula is usually obtained based on the analysis of experimental data. The empirical formula of glucose is written as CH2O. Empirical Formulas are usually said to be derived from the molecular formulas.
Structural Formula- As the name tells you, the structural formula provides an idea of how the atoms in the molecule or the compound are arranged along with their bond formations.
Writing a Chemical Formula
In order to write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of the elements present in the compound, formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. Following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula.
- Most of the compounds are binary compounds i.e. they have two elements. Compounds with more than two elements are also known.
- An atom with a positive charge is called as cation whereas an atom with the negative charge is called as an anion.
- For a compound containing metal and a non-metal, the metal is named first followed by the non-metal. For example: NaCl which consists of Na^{+} (metal ion) and Cl^{–} (non-metal ion)
- Anions having -1 negative charge usually have a suffix as –ide. For example: F^{–} – Floride
- Anions having oxy anions (oxygen + another element) usually have a suffix as –ate. For example – SO_{4}^{2-} (Sulphate)
- When a polyatomic anion has H^{–} ion, bi- or hydrogen is used as a suffix. For example – HCO_{3}^{–}-Bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonate
- Some polyatomic anions can be named as:
NH_{2}^{–} | Amide |
PO_{4}^{3-} | Phosphate |
CN^{–} | Cyanide |
List of Chemical Compound Formula
There are several chemical formula, however, here are the list of most important Chemical Formula.
Sl.No |
Name of the Chemical Compound |
Formula |
1 | Acetic acid formula | CH_{3}COOH |
2 | Aaluminum hydroxide formula | Al(OH)_{3} |
3 | Acetate formula | CH_{3}COO- |
4 | Acetone formula | C_{3}H_{6}O |
5 | Aluminum acetate formula | Al_{2}O(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{4} |
6 | Aluminum bromide formula | AlBr_{3} |
7 | Aluminum carbonate formula | Al_{2}(CO_{3})_{3} |
8 | Aluminum chloride formula | AlCl_{3} |
9 | Aluminum fluoride formula | AlF_{3} |
10 | Aluminum formula | Al |
11 | Aluminum iodide formula | AlI_{3} |
12 | Aluminum oxide formula | Al_{2}O_{3} |
13 | Aluminum phosphate formula | AlPO_{4} |
14 | Amino acid formula | R(NH_{2})-COOH |
15 | Ammonia chemical formula | NH_{4} |
16 | Ammonia formula | NH_{3} |
17 | Ammonium acetate formula | C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}NH_{4} |
18 | Ammonium bicarbonate formula | NH_{4}HCO_{3} |
19 | Ammonium bromide formula | NH_{4}Br |
20 | Ammonium carbonate formula | (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} |
21 | Ammonium chloride formula | NH4Cl |
22 | Ammonium hydroxide formula | NH4OH |
23 | Ammonium iodide formula | NH4I |
24 | Ammonium nitrate chemical formula | (NH4)(NO3) |
25 | Ammonium nitrate formula | NH4NO3 |
26 | Ammonium nitrite formula | NH4NO2 |
27 | Ammonium oxide formula | (NH4)2O |
28 | Ammonium phosphate formula | (NH4)3PO4 |
29 | Ammonium sulfate formula | (NH4)2SO4 |
30 | Ammonium sulfide formula | (NH4)2S |
31 | Argon gas formula | Ar |
32 | Ascorbic acid formula | C6H8O6 |
33 | Barium acetate formula | Ba(C2H3O2)2 |
34 | Barium bromide formula | BaBr2 |
35 | Barium chloride formula | BaCl2 |
36 | Barium fluoride formula | BaF2 |
37 | Barium hydroxide formula | Ba(OH)2 |
38 | Barium iodide formula | BaI2 |
39 | Barium nitrate formula | Ba(NO3)2 |
40 | Barium oxide formula | BaO |
41 | Barium phosphate formula | Ba3O8P2 |
42 | Barium sulfate formula | BaSO4 |
43 | Benzene formula | C6H6 |
44 | Benzoic acid formula | C7H6O2 |
45 | Bicarbonate formula | CHO3- |
46 | Bleach formula | NaClO |
47 | Boric acid formula | H3BO3 |
48 | Bromate formula | Br |
49 | Bromic acid formula | HBrO3 |
50 | Bromine gas formula | Br2 |
51 | Butane formula | C4H10 |
52 | Butanoic acid formula | C4H8O2 |
53 | Calcium acetate formula | Ca(COO-)2 |
54 | Calcium bromide formula | CaBr2 |
55 | Calcium carbonate formula | CaCO3 |
56 | Calcium hydride formula | CaH2 |
57 | Calcium hydroxide formula | Ca(OH)2 |
58 | Calcium iodide formula | CaI2 |
59 | Calcium nitrate formula | Ca(NO3)2 |
60 | Calcium oxide formula | CaO |
61 | Carbon monoxide formula | CO |
62 | Carbon tetrachloride formula | CCl4 |
63 | Carbonic acid formula | H2CO3 |
64 | Chemical formula for calcium phosphate | Ca3(PO4)2 |
65 | Chemical formula for carbonic acid | H2CO3 |
66 | Chemical formula for citric acid | C6H8O7 |
67 | Chlorate formula | ClO-3 |
68 | Chlorine formula | Cl2 |
69 | Chlorine gas formula | Cl2 |
70 | Chlorous acid formula | HClO2 |
71 | Chromate formula | CrO42- |
72 | Chromic acid formula | H2CrO4 |
73 | Citric acid formula | C6H8O7 |
74 | Copper ii carbonate formula | CuCO3 |
75 | Copper ii nitrate formula | Cu(NO3)2 |
76 | Cyanide formula | CN- |
77 | Dichromate formula | K2Cr2O7 |
78 | Dihydrogen monoxide formula | H2O |
79 | Dinitrogen monoxide formula | N2O |
80 | Dinitrogen pentoxide formula | N2O5 |
81 | Dinitrogen trioxide formula | N2O3 |
82 | Ethanol formula | C2H5OH |
83 | Ethanol structural formula | CH3CH2OH |
84 | Ethylene glycol formula | C2H6O2 |
85 | Fluorine gas formula | F_{2} |
86 | Formula for aluminum bromide | AlBr_{3} |
87 | Formula for aluminum sulfide | Al2S_{3} |
88 | Formula for ammonium carbonate | (NH4)2CO_{3} |
89 | Formula for ammonium nitrate | (NH4)(NO3) |
90 | Formula for ammonium phosphate | (NH4)3PO4 |
91 | Formula for barium chloride | BaCl2 |
92 | Formula for barium sulfate | BaSO4 |
93 | Formula for calcium nitrate | Ca(NO3)2 |
94 | Formula for carbon monoxide | CO |
95 | Formula for carbon tetrachloride | CCl4 |
96 | Formula for carbonic acid | H2CO3 |
97 | Formula for hydrofluoric acid | HF |
98 | Formula for hydroiodic acid | HI |
99 | Formula for hypochlorous acid | HClO |
100 | Formula for lithium phosphate | Li3PO4 |
101 | Formula for magnesium nitrate | MgNO3 |
102 | Formula for magnesium phosphate | Mg3(PO4)2 |
103 | Formula for nitrogen monoxide | NO |
104 | Formula for nitrous acid | HNO2 |
105 | Formula for potassium carbonate | K2CO3 |
106 | Formula for potassium iodide | KI |
107 | Formula for potassium nitrate | KNO3 |
108 | Formula for potassium phosphate | KH2PO4 |
109 | Formula for sodium carbonate | Na2CO3 |
110 | Formula for sodium oxide | Na2O |
111 | Fructose chemical formula | C6H12O6 |
112 | Glycerol formula | C3H8O3 |
113 | Helium gas formula | He |
114 | Hexane formula | C6H14 |
115 | Hydrobromic acid formula | HBr |
116 | Hydrochloric acid formula | HCl |
117 | Hydrocyanic acid formula | HCN |
118 | Hydrofluoric acid formula | HF |
119 | Hydrogen carbonate formula | CHO3- |
120 | Hydrogen gas formula | H2 |
121 | Hydrogen peroxide formula | H2O2 |
122 | Hydrogen phosphate formula | H3PO_{4} |
123 | Hydrogen sulfate formula | HSO4- |
124 | Hydroiodic acid formula | HI |
125 | Hydrosulfuric acid formula | H2SO4 |
126 | Hydroxide formula | OH- |
127 | Hypobromous acid formula | HBrO |
128 | Hypochlorite formula | NaClO |
129 | Hypochlorous acid formula | HClO |
130 | Hypoiodous acid formula | HIO |
131 | Iodic acid formula | HIO3 |
132 | Iodide formula | I2 |
133 | Iodine formula | I2 |
134 | Iron ii nitrate formula | Fe(NO3)3 |
135 | Iron ii oxide formula | FeO |
136 | Iron iii carbonate formula | Fe2(CO3)3 |
137 | Iron iii hydroxide formula | HFeO2 |
138 | Iron iii oxide formula | Fe2O3 |
139 | Iron oxide formula | Fe2O3 |
140 | Lactic acid formula | C3H6O3 |
141 | Lead acetate formula | Pb(C2H3O2)2 |
142 | Lead ii acetate formula | Pb(C2H3O2)2 |
143 | Lead iodide formula | PbI2 |
144 | Lead iv oxide formula | PbO2 |
145 | Lead nitrate formula | Pb(NO3)2 |
146 | Lithium bromide formula | LiBr |
147 | Lithium chloride formula | LiCl2 |
148 | Lithium hydroxide formula | LiOH |
149 | Lithium iodide formula | LiI2 |
150 | Lithium oxide formula | Li2O |
151 | Lithium phosphate formula | Li3PO4 |
152 | Magnesium acetate formula | Mg(CH3COO)2 |
153 | Magnesium bicarbonate formula | MgCO3 |
154 | Magnesium carbonate formula | MgCO3 |
155 | Magnesium chloride formula | MgCl2 |
156 | Magnesium hydroxide formula | Mg(OH)3 |
157 | Magnesium iodide formula | MgI2 |
158 | Magnesium nitrate formula | Mg(NO3)2 |
159 | Magnesium nitride formula | Mg3N2 |
160 | Magnesium oxide chemical formula | MgO |
161 | Magnesium oxide formula | MgO |
162 | Magnesium phosphate chemical formula | Mg3PO4 |
163 | Magnesium phosphate formula | Mg3(PO4)2 |
164 | Magnesium sulfate formula | MgSO4 |
165 | Magnesium sulfide formula | MgS |
166 | Methane formula | CH4 |
167 | Methanol formula | CH3OH |
168 | Nickel acetate formula | Ni(C2H3O2)2 |
169 | Nickel nitrate formula | Ni(NO3)2 |
170 | Nitric acid formula | HNO3 |
171 | Nitride formula | N3 |
172 | Nitrite formula | NO2− |
173 | Nitrogen dioxide formula | NO2 |
174 | Nitrogen monoxide formula | NO |
175 | Nitrous acid formula | HNO2 |
176 | Oxalate formula | C2O42− |
177 | Oxalic acid formula | H2C2O4 |
178 | Oxygen gas formula | O2 |
179 | Ozone formula | O3 |
180 | Perbromic acid formula | HBrO4 |
181 | Permanganate formula | KMnO4 |
182 | Permanganate ion formula | MnO4- |
183 | Phosphate chemical formula | PO43- |
184 | Phosphate formula | PO4- |
185 | Phosphate ion formula | PO43- |
186 | Phosphoric acid formula | H3PO4 |
187 | Phosphorus pentachloride formula | PCl5 |
188 | Phosphorus trichloride formula | PCl3 |
189 | Potassium acetate formula | CH3CO2K |
190 | Potassium bicarbonate formula | KHCO3 |
191 | Potassium carbonate formula | K2CO3 |
192 | Potassium chlorate formula | KClO3 |
193 | Potassium chloride chemical formula | KCl |
194 | Potassium chloride formula | KCl |
195 | Potassium chromate formula | CrK2O4 |
196 | Potassium cyanide formula | KCN |
197 | Potassium dichromate formula | K2Cr2O7 |
198 | Potassium fluoride formula | KF |
199 | Potassium hydroxide formula | KOH |
200 | Potassium hypochlorite formula | KClO3 |
201 | Potassium iodide formula | KI |
202 | Potassium nitrate chemical formula | KNO3 |
203 | Potassium nitrate formula | KNO3 |
204 | Potassium nitrite formula | KNO2 |
205 | Potassium oxide formula | K2O |
206 | Potassium phosphate chemical formula | KH2PO4 |
207 | Potassium phosphate formula | KH2PO4 |
208 | Potassium sulfite formula | K2SO3 |
209 | Salicylic acid formula | C7H6O3 |
210 | Silicon dioxide formula | SiO2 |
211 | Silver acetate formula | AgC2H3O2 |
212 | Silver carbonate formula | Ag2CO3 |
213 | Silver chloride formula | AgCl |
214 | Silver nitrate formula | AgNO3 |
215 | Silver oxide formula | Ag2O |
216 | Silver phosphate formula | Ag3PO4 |
217 | Sodium acetate formula | C2H3NaO2 |
218 | Sodium bicarbonate formula | NaHCO3 |
219 | Sodium bromide formula | NaBr |
220 | Sodium carbonate chemical formula | Na2CO3 |
221 | Sodium carbonate formula | Na2CO3 |
222 | Sodium chloride formula | NaCl |
223 | Sodium chromate formula | Na2CrO4 |
224 | Sodium citrate formula | Na3C6H5O7 |
225 | Sodium cyanide formula | NaCN |
226 | Sodium dichromate formula | Na2Cr2O7 |
227 | Sodium fluoride formula | NaF |
228 | Sodium hydroxide formula | NaOH |
229 | Sodium hypochlorite formula | NaClO |
230 | Sodium iodide formula | NaI |
231 | Sodium nitrate chemical formula | NaNO3 |
232 | Sodium nitrate formula | NaNO3 |
233 | Sodium nitride formula | Na3N |
234 | Sodium nitrite formula | NaNO2 |
235 | Sodium oxide formula | Na2O |
236 | Sodium peroxide formula | Na2O2 |
237 | Sodium phosphate formula | Na3PO4 |
238 | Sodium sulfate formula | Na2SO4 |
239 | Sodium sulfide formula | Na2S |
240 | Sodium sulfite formula | Na2SO3 |
241 | Strontium chloride formula | SrCl2 |
242 | Strontium nitrate formula | Sr(NO3)2 |
243 | Sucrose formula | C12H22O11 |
244 | Sugar chemical formula | C12H22O11 |
245 | Sulfate ion formula | SO42− |
246 | Sulfur dioxide formula | SO2 |
247 | Sulfur trioxide formula | SO3 |
248 | Sulfuric acid formula | H2SO4 |
249 | Sulfurous acid formula | H2SO3 |
250 | Tartaric acid formula | C4H6O6 |
251 | Toluene formula | C7H8 |
252 | Urea formula | CH4N2O |
253 | Vinegar chemical formula | C2H4O2 |
254 | Zinc acetate formula | Zn(O2CCH3)2 |
255 | Zinc carbonate formula | ZnCO3 |
256 | Zinc chloride formula | ZnCl2 |
257 | Zinc hydroxide formula | Zn(OH)2 |
258 | Zinc iodide formula | ZnI2 |
259 | Zinc nitrate formula | Zn(NO3)2 |
260 | Zinc phosphate formula | Zn3(PO4)2 |
261 | Zinc sulfate formula | ZnSO4 |
262 | Zinc sulfide formula | ZnS |
To learn more about chemical formula and other topics related to chemical formula in chemistry, download Byju’s The Learning App.