The chemical formula of a compound is a symbolic representation of its chemical composition. Chemical formulae provide insight into the elements that constitute the molecules of a compound and also the ratio in which the atoms of these elements combine to form such molecules. For example, the chemical formula of water, which is H_{2}O, suggests that two hydrogen atoms combine with one oxygen atom to form one molecule of water.
Table of Contents
Importance of Chemistry FormulasTypes of Chemistry Formulas or Chemical FormulaHow to write Chemical FormulaList of Chemical Compound Formula
Importance of Chemical Formulae
 Chemical formulae provide insight into the chemical composition of a compound.
 They also represent the ratios in which the constituent elements combine to form the compound.
 The chemical formula of a compound is crucial while representing it in a chemical equation.
 Chemical formulae can also be employed to represent ions, free radicals and other chemical species.
Types of Chemical Formulae
While the term ‘chemical formula’ typically refers to the molecular formula of a compound (which denotes the total number of atoms of each constituent element in one molecule of the compound), the compositions of chemical compounds can be expressed in several ways, as listed in this subsection.
Molecular Formula:
The molecular formula provides insight into the number of elements present in a compound. In molecular formulae, the elements are denoted by their respective symbols (as in the periodic table) and the number of atoms of each element in the molecule is written in subscript. For example the molecular formula for glucose is C_{6}H_{12}O_{6}.
Empirical Formula:
The empirical formula of a chemical compound represents the ratio of the elements present in that compound. Empirical formulae are usually obtained based on the analysis of experimental data. The empirical formula for glucose is CH_{2}O. Empirical Formulae can be derived from the molecular formulae.
Structural Formula:
As the name suggests, the structural formula of a chemical compound provides insight into the arrangement of the atoms in the molecule.
How to write Chemical Formula
In order to write a chemical formula, it is important to know the symbol of the elements present in the compound, formula of the radicals and the valency of the elements in that compound. Following points should be kept in mind while writing a chemical formula.

 Most of the compounds are binary compounds, i.e. they have two elements. Compounds with more than two elements are also known
 An atom with a positive charge is called a cation whereas an atom with a negative charge is called an anion
 For a compound containing a metal and a nonmetal, the metal is named first followed by the nonmetal. For example: NaCl which consists of Na^{+} (metal ion) and Cl^{–} (nonmetal ion)
 Anions having 1 negative charge usually have a suffix as –ide. For example: F^{–} – Floride
 Anions having oxyanions (oxygen + another element) usually have a suffix as –ate. For example – SO_{4}^{2} (Sulphate)
 When a polyatomic anion has H^{–} ion, bi or hydrogen is used as a suffix. For example – HCO_{3}^{–}Bicarbonate or hydrogen carbonate
 Some polyatomic anions can be named as:
Chemical Formula  Polyatomic Anion 
NH_{2}^{–}  Amide 
PO_{4}^{3}  Phosphate 
CN^{–}  Cyanide 
Solved Examples
Problem 1: In one molecule of the compound, determine how many atoms of every element are present for each one of these chemical formulas.
 HCN – hydrogen cyanide –It’s a toxic gas
 C_{18}H_{21}NO_{3} – codeine, a painkilling drug
 Ca_{10}(PO_{4})_{6}(OH)_{2} – Hydroxyapatite, that is present in the enamel of the tooth
Answer:
 One atom is present in each of the elements hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, respectively. Remember that the subscript 1 is understood when no subscript is mentioned.
 This formula points out that in one molecule of the compound, 18 carbon atoms, 21 hydrogen atoms, one nitrogen atom and three oxygen atoms are existent.
 There are ten calcium atoms. The amounts of phosphorous, hydrogen and oxygen are affected by the subscripts outside the parentheses. There are six phosphorous atoms and two hydrogen atoms existent. Oxygen atoms exist in two positions in the formula. There are overall 26 oxygen atoms: two from the OH subunit (2×1) and 24 from the PO_{4} subunits (6×4)
List of Chemical Compound Formula
There are several chemical formulae, however, here is a list of most important Chemical Formulas in chemistry.
Sl.No 
Name of the Chemical Compound 
Formula 
1  Acetic acid formula  CH_{3}COOH 
2  Aluminium hydroxide formula  Al(OH)_{3} 
3  Acetate formula  CH_{3}COO 
4  Acetone formula  C_{3}H_{6}O 
5  Aluminium acetate formula  C_{6}H_{9}AlO_{6} 
6  Aluminium bromide formula  AlBr_{3} 
7  Aluminium carbonate formula  Al_{2}(CO_{3})_{3} 
8  Aluminium chloride formula  AlCl_{3} 
9  Aluminium fluoride formula  AlF_{3} 
10  Aluminium formula  Al 
11  Aluminium iodide formula  AlI_{3} 
12  Aluminium oxide formula  Al_{2}O_{3} 
13  Aluminium phosphate formula  AlPO_{4} 
14  Amino acid formula  H_{2}NCHRCOOH 
15  Ammonia formula  NH_{3} 
16  Ammonium dichromate formula  Cr_{2}H_{8}N_{2}O_{7} 
17  Ammonium acetate formula  C_{2}H_{3}O_{2}NH_{4} 
18  Ammonium bicarbonate formula  NH_{4}HCO_{3} 
19  Ammonium bromide formula  NH_{4}Br 
20  Ammonium carbonate formula  (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} 
21  Ammonium chloride formula  NH_{4}Cl 
22  Ammonium hydroxide formula  NH_{4}OH 
23  Ammonium iodide formula  NH_{4}I 
24  Ammonium nitrate formula  NH_{4}NO_{3} 
25  Aluminium sulfide formula  Al_{2}S_{3} 
26  Ammonium nitrite formula  NH_{4}NO_{2} 
27  Ammonium oxide formula  (NH_{4})_{2}O 
28  Ammonium phosphate formula  (NH_{4})_{3}PO_{4} 
29  Ammonium sulfate formula  (NH_{4})_{2}SO_{4} 
30  Ammonium sulfide formula  (NH_{4})_{2}S 
31  Argon gas formula  Ar 
32  Ascorbic acid formula  C_{6}H_{8}O_{6} 
33  Barium acetate formula  Ba(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2} 
34  Barium bromide formula  BaBr_{2} 
35  Barium chloride formula  BaCl_{2} 
36  Barium fluoride formula  BaF_{2} 
37  Barium hydroxide formula  Ba(OH)_{2} 
38  Barium iodide formula  BaI_{2} 
39  Barium nitrate formula  Ba(NO_{3})_{2} 
40  Barium oxide formula  BaO 
41  Barium phosphate formula  Ba_{3}O_{8}P_{2} 
42  Barium sulfate formula  BaSO_{4} 
43  Benzene formula  C_{6}H_{6} 
44  Benzoic acid formula  C_{7}H_{6}O_{2} 
45  Bicarbonate formula  CHO_{3}^{–} 
46  Bleach formula  NaClO 
47  Boric acid formula  H_{3}BO_{3} 
48  Potassium Bromate formula  KBrO_{3} 
49  Bromic acid formula  HBrO_{3} 
50  Bromine formula  Br 
51  Butane formula  C_{4}H_{10} 
52  Butanoic acid formula  C_{4}H_{8}O_{2} 
53  Calcium acetate formula  C_{₄}H_{₆}CaO_{₄} 
54  Calcium bromide formula  CaBr_{2} 
55  Calcium carbonate formula  CaCO_{3} 
56  Calcium hydride formula  CaH_{2} 
57  Calcium hydroxide formula  Ca(OH)_{2} 
58  Calcium iodide formula  CaI_{2} 
59  Calcium nitrate formula  Ca(NO_{3})_{2} 
60  Calcium oxide formula  CaO 
61  Carbon monoxide formula  CO 
62  Carbon tetrachloride formula  CCl_{4} 
63  Carbonic acid formula  H_{2}CO_{3} 
64  Calcium phosphate formula  Ca_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} 
65  Carbonic acid formula  H_{2}CO_{3} 
66  Citric acid formula  C_{6}H_{8}O_{7} 
67  Chlorate formula  ClO^{–}_{3} 
68  Chlorine formula  Cl 
69  Chlorine gas formula  Cl_{2} 
70  Chlorous acid formula  HClO_{2} 
71  Chromate formula  CrO_{4}^{2} 
72  Chromic acid formula  H_{2}CrO_{4} 
73  Citric acid formula  C_{6}H_{8}O_{7} 
74  Copper ii carbonate formula  CuCO_{3} 
75  Copper ii nitrate formula  Cu(NO_{3})_{2} 
76  Cyanide formula  CN^{–} 
77  Dichromate formula  K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} 
78  Dihydrogen monoxide formula  H_{2}O 
79  Dinitrogen monoxide formula  N_{2}O 
80  Dinitrogen pentoxide formula  N_{2}O_{5} 
81  Dinitrogen trioxide formula  N_{2}O_{3} 
82  Ethanol formula  C_{2}H_{5}OH 
83  Iron oxide formula  Fe_{2}O_{3} 
84  Ethylene glycol formula  C_{2}H_{6}O_{2} 
85  Fluorine gas formula  F_{2} 
86  Aluminum bromide formula  AlBr_{3} 
87  Aluminum sulfide formula  Al_{2}S_{3} 
88  Ammonium carbonate formula  (NH_{4})_{2}CO_{3} 
89  Ammonium nitrate formula  (NH_{4})(NO_{3}) 
90  Ammonium phosphate formula  (NH_{4})_{3}PO_{4} 
91  Barium chloride formula  BaCl_{2} 
92  Barium sulfate formula  BaSO_{4} 
93  Calcium nitrate formula  Ca(NO_{3})_{2} 
94  Carbon monoxide formula  CO 
95  Carbon tetrachloride formula  CCl_{4} 
96  Carbonic acid formula  H_{2}CO_{3} 
97  Hydrofluoric acid formula  HF 
98  Hydroiodic acid formula  HI 
99  Hypochlorous acid formula  HClO 
100  Lithium phosphate formula  Li_{3}PO_{4} 
101  Magnesium nitrate formula  MgNO_{3} 
102  Magnesium phosphate formula  Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} 
103  Nitrogen monoxide formula  NO 
104  Nitrous acid formula  HNO_{2} 
105  Potassium carbonate formula  K_{2}CO_{3} 
106  Potassium iodide formula  KI 
107  Potassium nitrate formula  KNO_{3} 
108  Potassium phosphate formula  KH_{2}PO_{4} 
109  Sodium carbonate formula  Na_{2}CO_{3} 
110  Sodium oxide formula  Na_{2}O 
111  Fructose chemical formula  C_{6}H_{12}O_{6} 
112  Glycerol formula  C_{3}H_{8}O_{3} 
113  Helium gas formula  He 
114  Hexane formula  C_{6}H_{14} 
115  Hydrobromic acid formula  HBr 
116  Hydrochloric acid formula  HCl 
117  Hydrocyanic acid formula  HCN 
118  Hydrofluoric acid formula  HF 
119  Hydrogen carbonate formula  CHO_{3}^{–} 
120  Hydrogen gas formula  H_{2} 
121  Hydrogen peroxide formula  H_{2}O_{2} 
122  Hydrogen phosphate formula  H_{3}PO_{4} 
123  Hydrogen sulfate formula  HSO_{4}^{–} 
124  Hydroiodic acid formula  HI 
125  Hydrosulfuric acid formula  H_{2}SO_{4} 
126  Hydroxide ion formula  OH^{–} 
127  Hypobromous acid formula  HBrO 
128  Hypochlorite formula  NaClO 
129  Hypochlorous acid formula  HClO 
130  Hypoiodous acid formula  HIO 
131  Iodic acid formula  HIO_{3} 
132  Iodide ion formula  I^{–} 
133  Iodine formula  I_{2} 
134  Iron (iii) nitrate formula  Fe(NO_{3})_{3} 
135  Iron (ii) oxide formula  FeO 
136  Iron (iii) carbonate formula  Fe_{2}(CO_{3})_{3} 
137  Iron (iii) hydroxide formula  Fe(OH)_{3} 
138  Iron (iii) oxide formula  Fe_{2}O_{3} 
139  Iron (iii) chloride formula  FeCl_{3} 
140  Lactic acid formula  C_{3}H_{6}O_{3} 
141  Lead acetate formula  Pb(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2} 
142  Lead (ii) acetate formula  Pb(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2} 
143  Lead iodide formula  PbI_{2} 
144  Lead (iv) oxide formula  PbO_{2} 
145  Lead nitrate formula  Pb(NO_{3})_{2} 
146  Lithium bromide formula  LiBr 
147  Lithium chloride formula  LiCl 
148  Lithium hydroxide formula  LiOH 
149  Lithium iodide formula  LiI 
150  Lithium oxide formula  Li_{2}O 
151  Lithium phosphate formula  Li_{3}PO_{4} 
152  Magnesium acetate formula  Mg(CH_{3}COO)_{2} 
153  Magnesium bicarbonate formula  C_{2}H_{2}MgO_{6} 
154  Magnesium carbonate formula  MgCO_{3} 
155  Magnesium chloride formula  MgCl_{2} 
156  Magnesium hydroxide formula  Mg(OH)_{2} 
157  Magnesium iodide formula  MgI_{2} 
158  Magnesium nitrate formula  Mg(NO_{3})_{2} 
159  Magnesium nitride formula  Mg_{3}N_{2} 
160  Magnesium carbonate formula  MgCO_{3} 
161  Magnesium bromide formula  MgBr_{2} 
162  Magnesium oxide formula  MgO 
163  Magnesium phosphate formula  Mg_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} 
164  Magnesium sulfate formula  MgSO_{4} 
165  Magnesium sulfide formula  MgS 
166  Methane formula  CH_{4} 
167  Methanol formula  CH_{3}OH 
168  Nickel acetate formula  Ni(C_{2}H_{3}O_{2})_{2} 
169  Nickel nitrate formula  Ni(NO_{3})_{2} 
170  Nitric acid formula  HNO_{3} 
171  Nitride formula  N_{3}^{–} 
172  Nitrite formula  NO_{2}^{−} 
173  Nitrogen dioxide formula  NO_{2} 
174  Nitrogen monoxide formula  NO 
175  Nitrous acid formula  HNO_{2} 
176  Oxalate formula  C_{2}O_{4}^{2−} 
177  Oxalic acid formula  H_{2}C_{2}O_{4} 
178  Oxygen formula  O_{2} 
179  Ozone formula  O_{3} 
180  Perbromic acid formula  HBrO_{4} 
181  Potassium Permanganate formula  KMnO_{4} 
182  Permanganate ion formula  MnO_{4}^{–} 
183  Phosphate formula  PO_{4}^{3} 
184  Sodium hydrogen phosphate formula  Na_{2}HPO_{4} 
185  Sodium formate formula  HCOONa 
186  Phosphoric acid formula  H_{3}PO_{4} 
187  Phosphorus pentachloride formula  PCl_{5} 
188  Phosphorus trichloride formula  PCl_{3} 
189  Potassium acetate formula  CH_{3}CO_{2}K 
190  Potassium bicarbonate formula  KHCO_{3} 
191  Potassium carbonate formula  K_{2}CO_{3} 
192  Potassium chlorate formula  KClO_{3} 
193  Potassium hydrogen phosphate formula  K_{2}HPO_{4} 
194  Potassium chloride formula  KCl 
195  Potassium chromate formula  CrK_{2}O_{4} 
196  Potassium cyanide formula  KCN 
197  Potassium dichromate formula  K_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} 
198  Potassium fluoride formula  KF 
199  Potassium hydroxide formula  KOH 
200  Potassium hypochlorite formula  KClO 
201  Potassium iodide formula  KI 
201  Potassium dihydrogen phosphate formula  KH_{2}PO_{4} 
203  Potassium nitrate formula  KNO_{3} 
204  Potassium nitrite formula  KNO_{2} 
205  Potassium oxide formula  K_{2}O 
206  Potassium iodate formula  KIO_{3} 
207  Potassium phosphate formula  KH_{2}PO_{4} 
208  Potassium sulfite formula  K_{2}SO_{3} 
209  Salicylic acid formula  C_{7}H_{6}O_{3} 
210  Silicon dioxide formula  SiO_{2} 
211  Silver acetate formula  AgC_{2}H_{3}O_{2} 
212  Silver carbonate formula  Ag_{2}CO_{3} 
213  Silver chloride formula  AgCl 
214  Silver nitrate formula  AgNO_{3} 
215  Silver oxide formula  Ag_{2}O 
216  Silver phosphate formula  Ag_{3}PO_{4} 
217  Sodium acetate formula  C_{2}H_{3}NaO_{2} 
218  Sodium bicarbonate formula  NaHCO_{3} 
219  Sodium bromide formula  NaBr 
220  Sodium thiosulfate formula  Na_{2}S_{2}O_{3} 
221  Sodium carbonate formula  Na_{2}CO_{3} 
222  Sodium chloride formula  NaCl 
223  Sodium chromate formula  Na_{2}CrO_{4} 
224  Sodium citrate formula  Na_{3}C_{6}H_{5}O_{7} 
225  Sodium cyanide formula  NaCN 
226  Sodium dichromate formula  Na_{2}Cr_{2}O_{7} 
227  Sodium fluoride formula  NaF 
228  Sodium hydroxide formula  NaOH 
229  Sodium hypochlorite formula  NaClO 
230  Sodium iodide formula  NaI 
231  Uric acid formula  C_{5}H_{4}N_{4}O_{3} 
232  Sodium nitrate formula  NaNO_{3} 
233  Sodium nitride formula  Na_{3}N 
234  Sodium nitrite formula  NaNO_{2} 
235  Sodium oxide formula  Na_{2}O 
236  Sodium peroxide formula  Na_{2}O_{2} 
237  Sodium phosphate formula  Na_{3}PO_{4} 
238  Sodium sulfate formula  Na_{2}SO_{4} 
239  Sodium sulfide formula  Na_{2}S 
240  Sodium sulfite formula  Na_{2}SO_{3} 
241  Strontium chloride formula  SrCl_{2} 
242  Strontium nitrate formula  Sr(NO_{3})_{2} 
243  Sucrose formula  C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} 
244  Sugar formula  C_{12}H_{22}O_{11} 
245  Sulfate ion formula  SO_{4}^{2−} 
246  Sulfur dioxide formula  SO_{2} 
247  Sulfur trioxide formula  SO_{3} 
248  Sulfuric acid formula  H_{2}SO_{4} 
249  Sulfurous acid formula  H_{2}SO_{3} 
250  Tartaric acid formula  C_{4}H_{6}O_{6} 
251  Toluene formula  C_{7}H_{8} 
252  Urea formula  CH_{4}N_{2}O 
253  Vinegar formula  C_{2}H_{4}O_{2} 
254  Zinc acetate formula  Zn(O_{2}CCH_{3})_{2} 
255  Zinc carbonate formula  ZnCO_{3} 
256  Zinc chloride formula  ZnCl_{2} 
257  Zinc hydroxide formula  Zn(OH)_{2} 
258  Zinc iodide formula  ZnI_{2} 
259  Zinc nitrate formula  Zn(NO_{3})_{2} 
260  Zinc phosphate formula  Zn_{3}(PO_{4})_{2} 
261  Zinc sulfate formula  ZnSO_{4} 
262  Zinc sulfide formula  ZnS 
To learn more about chemical formula, nomenclature of organic compounds and other topics related to chemical formula in chemistry, download BYJU’S The Learning App.
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Best formula in chemistry
H2O is the simplest and best chemical formula
For water, the molecule is made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom, so its molecular formula is H2O. This also represents the simplest ratio of atoms in the molecule, so its empirical formula is H2O.
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please what is the formulae for lithium chloride
The chemical formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.
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The chemical formula of lithium chloride is LiCl.
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Please tell me chemical effect
The passage of an electric current through a conducting solution causes chemical reactions. The process in which chemical reaction takes place in a solution on passing electricity through it is because of the chemical effect of current.
The chemical formula for magnesium nitrate is Mg(No3)2.
Yes the chemical formula for magnesium nitrate is Mg(NO3)2
What is the chemical formula of salt and suger
The chemical formula of sucrose is C12H22O11, meaning that each molecule of sucrose has 12 carbon atoms, 22 hydrogen atoms and 11 oxygen atoms. The chemical formula for table salt, otherwise known as sodium chloride, is NaCl.
Please tell me Chemical Formula for –
Acetic Acid and Ammonia
Thank You Byju’s
The Chemical Formula for Acetic Acid is CH₃COOH.
The Chemical Formula for Ammonia is NH3.
While writing chemical formula for metal and non metal we use criss cross method but what should we for writing chemical formulas for non metal and non metal?
A covalent or molecular compound is formed when two nonmetals combine (i.e., one that is held together by covalent bonds which result from the sharing of electrons).
In many cases, two elements can combine in a variety of ways to form entirely different compounds. (With the exception of metals that can form more than one charge, this cannot happen with ionic compounds.) Carbon, for example, can share electrons with one oxygen to form CO (carbon monoxide), or with two oxygens to form CO2 (carbon dioxide). As a result, how much of each element is present in the compound must be specified.
Read more Naming Covalent Compounds