Ionic Bond or Electrovalent Bond

What is an Ionic Bond?

There are primarily three ways in which two atoms combine together to lose energy and to become stable. One of the ways is by donating or accepting electrons so as to complete their octet configuration. The bond formed by this kind of combination is known as an ionic bond or electrovalent bond.

Ionic Bond Or Electrovalent Bond

Ionic Bond Or Electrovalent Bond

Electronegativity and Ionic Bonding

An Ionic bond is the bond formed by the complete transfer of valence electron so as to attain stability. This type of bonding leads to the formation of two oppositely charged ions – positive ion known as cations and negative ions are known as anions. The presence of two oppositely charged ions results in a strong attractive force between them. This force is an ionic or electrovalent bond.

Ionic bonds form between atoms with large differences in electronegativity, whereas covalent bonds formed between atoms with smaller differences in electronegativity. The compound formed by the electrostatic attraction of positive and negative ions is called an ionic compound.

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Ionic Bond Properties

Due to the presence of a strong force of attraction between cations and anions in ionic bonded molecules, the following properties are observed:

  1. The ionic bonds are the strongest of all the bonds.
  2. The ionic bond has charge separation and so they are the most reactive of all the bonds in the proper medium.
  3. The ionic bonded molecules have high melting and boiling point.
  4. The ionic bonded molecules in their aqueous solutions or in the molten state are good conductors of electricity. This is due to the presence of ions which acts as charge carriers.

Examples of Ionic Bonds

The following table shows the elements and the ions formed by them when they lose or gain e.

Element Electronic config. Reaction Formed ion
Na(11) 2,8,1 Na → Na+ + e   ………………….. Reaction 1 Na+
Ca(20) 2,8,8,2 Ca → Ca2+ + 2e……………….. Reaction 2 Ca2+
Cl(17) 2,8,7 Cl + e→ Cl– ………………….……. Reaction 3 Cl
O(8) 2,6 O + 2e→ O2-…………………… Reaction 4 O2-


  1. Now when Na reacts with Cl, reaction 1 and reaction 3 will take place and the resultant compound will be NaCl.
  2. When Na reacts with O, reaction 1 and reaction 4 will take place and the resultant compound will be Na2
  3. When Ca reacts with Cl, reaction 2 and reaction 3 will take place and the resultant compound will be CaCl2.
  4. When Ca reacts with O, reaction 2 and reaction 4 will take place and the resultant compound will be CaO.

This was a brief introduction about ionic bonds and their formation. Learn more about different types of chemical bonds, join Byju’s.

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