Symbol Nb
Atomic Number 41
Atomic Mass 92.906 g.mol -1
Discovered by Charles Hatchett in 1801

Chemical Properties of Niobium

Group 5 Melting point 2410 °C
Period 5 Boiling point 5100 °C
Block d Density (g cm−3) 8.57
Atomic number 41 Relative atomic mass 92.906
State at 20°C Solid Key isotopes 93Nb
Electron configuration [Kr] 4d5s1 CAS number 7440-03-1
ChemSpider ID 22378 ChemSpider is a free chemical structure database

What is Niobium?

  • Niobium is a chemical element with atomic number 41 and represented with the symbol Nb in the Periodic Table.
  • It is a soft, ductile transition metal, which is resistant to corrosion due to the presence of oxide layer on its surface.
  • It is one of the most common elements found in the Earth’s Crust. It is often found in the pyrochlore mineral.

Uses of Niobium

  • It is used in stainless steel alloys for cutting tools, nuclear reactors, jets, missiles, and welding rods.
  • It is used in the manufacturing of MRI scanners and NMR equipment.
  • Its alloys are used in making surgical implants.
  • It is used for the production of stainless steel and high-temperature resistant alloys.

Properties of Niobium

  • At cryogenic temperatures, Niobium becomes a superconductor.
  • Niobium and its compounds are toxic to some extent.
  • When exposed to air at room temperature, metal takes on a bluish tinge for extended periods.
  • Niobium comprises of one stable isotope in the Earth’s crust.

Certain Facts About Niobium

  • In united states, the element was called columbium (symbol Cb) for about 100 years while it was called niobium in Europe.
  • There are around 18 known isotopes of niobium.

Practise This Question

The wave function, Ψn,l,ml is a methematical function whose value depends upon spherical polar coordinates (r, θ, Ф) of the electron and characterized by the quantum numbers n, l and m. Here r is distance from nucleus, θ is colatitude and Ф is azimuth. In the mathematical functions given in the Table, Z is atomic number and a0 is Bohr radius.

Column 1 Column 2 Column 3
(i) 1s orbital (i) Ψn,l,ml(Za0)32e(Zra0) (P)
(ii) 2s orbital (ii) One radial node (Q) Probability density at nucleus 1a30
(iii) 2 pz orbital (iii) Ψn,l,ml(Za0)52re(Zr2a0)cosθ (R) Probability density is maximum at nucleus
(iv) 3d2z orbital (iv) xy-plane is a nodal plane (S) Energy needed to excite electron from n = 2 state to n = 4 state is2732 times the energy needed to excite electron from n = 2 state to n = 6 state

For hydrogen atom, the only CORRECT combination is