Degenerate orbitals definition:
Electron orbitals which have the same energy levels are known as degenerate orbitals. As per Aufbau’s principle, the lower energy levels are filled before higher energy levels. As per Hund’s rule, the degenerate orbitals are filled evenly before they move to higher energy levels. Aufbau’s principle, Paulis exclusion principle, and Hund’s rule are three rules of electronic configuration.
What is Aufbau’s principle?
It states that in the ground state of an ion or an atom, the atomic orbitals of the electrons fill the lowest available energy levels before they occupy the higher levels. For instance, 2s sub shell is filled after 1s shell is occupied. Hence the most stable electron configuration is achieved.
What is Hund’s rule?
Hund’s rule states that the greatest number of parallel electron spins happen in the ground state electron configuration in any electron sub shell. This rule was formulated by Friedrich Hund in the year 1927.
It helps in determining the ground state of a molecule or an atom.
They are reliable to determine the lowest state of an excited electronic configuration which is already given. For example, consider helium atom. Hund’s rule correctly foretells that the 1s2s singlet state is higher than the 1s2s triplet state.
Degenerate orbitals example:
p orbital has 3 degenerate orbitals. All three have the same energy levels. Each orbital is first assigned with only one electron. The second electron will be of opposite spin. Each orbital is filled and the total is six electrons.
Explanation of Degenerate orbitals with the diagram
Orbitals in the 2p sublevel are degenerate orbitals – Which means that the 2px, 2py, and 2pz orbitals have the exact same energy. The below diagram will help you understand it better.
Similarly, at a higher energy than 2p, the 3px, 3py, and 3pz are degenerate orbitals.
And at the 3d energy level, the 3dxy, 3dxz, 3dyz, 3dx2 – y2, and 3dz2 are degenerate orbitals with the same energy.
Degeneracy – The total number of different states of the same energy is called degeneracy. It is also known as the degree of degeneracy.
- The degree degeneracy of p orbitals is 3
- The degree degeneracy of d orbitals is 5
- The degree degeneracy of f orbitals is 7
Frequently Asked Questions on Degenerate Orbitals
Define the lowest energy state or ground state?
If a molecule, ion, or an atom is at the lowest energy level then it is said to be in the ground state.
How can you determine the ground state of an atom?
An atom’s nucleus is surrounded by electrons that engage orbitals or shells of differing energy levels. In the ground state, the electron is in the lowest energy level.
What is an excited state of an atom or molecule?
An excited state of a molecule or an atom means that atom or molecule has higher energy when compared to the ground state.
How did Aufbau’s Principle originate?
Aufbau’s Principle originated from Pauli’s exclusion principle.
What are the three rules of electronic configuration ?
Aufbau’s Principle, Hund’s Rule, and Pauli-exclusion principle.
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