What is Critical Temperature?
The critical temperature of a substance can be defined as the highest temperature at which the substance can exist as a liquid. At temperatures above the critical temperature, the substance in question (in its vapour/gaseous state) can no longer be liquified, regardless of the amount pressure applied to it.
A graph describing the triple point (the point at which a substance can exist in all three states of matter) and the critical point of a substance is provided below. It can be noted that the graph is plotted with pressure on the Y-axis and temperature on the X-axis. Therefore, the critical temperature can be obtained from the X-axis value of the critical point. The corresponding Y-axis value of the critical point, which is the pressure required to liquefy a substance at its critical temperature, is known as the critical pressure of the substance.
The critical point of a liquid was discovered by the French physicist Charles Cagniard de la Tour in the year 1822. He observed that carbon dioxide could be liquified at a temperature of 31oC when 73 atm of pressure was applied, but it could not be liquified at higher temperatures, even when pressures above 3000 atm were applied. This maximum temperature at which substances could exist in the liquid phase was later named “Critical Temperature” by Dmitri Mendeleev in the year 1860.
Critical Temperatures and Pressures of Some Substances
The critical temperatures and pressures of some substances are listed in a tabular column below. It can be noted that the temperature value corresponding to the critical point of a substance is denoted by Tc whereas the corresponding pressure is described by the symbol Pc.
|Substance||Critical Pressure (Pc)||Critical Temperature (Tc)|
|Ammonia (NH3)||111.3 atm||405.5 K|
|Carbon Dioxide (CO2)||72.8 atm||304.19 K|
|Nitrogen (N2)||33.5 atm||126.2 K|
|Water (H2O)||217.7 atm||647.09 K|
|Helium (He)||2.24 atm||5.19 K|
|Chlorine (Cl)||76.0 atm||416.9 K|
|Lithium (Li)||652 atm||3220 K|
|Gold (Au)||5000 atm||7250 K|
From the table provided above, it can be observed that metals generally have very high Tc and Pc values. On the other hand, helium has one of the lowest critical temperatures (valued at 5.19K).
Frequently Asked Questions
What is Critical Pressure?
The critical pressure of a substance is the pressure that must be applied in order to liquefy that substance at its critical temperature. For example, 217.7 atmospheres of pressure must be applied to water in order to liquefy it at its critical temperature (which is 647.09 Kelvin).
What is the Difference between Triple Point and Critical Point?
The triple point of a substance is the temperature and pressure at which it can exist in all three states. A substance is said to be at its critical point when the absolute temperature associated with it is equal to its critical temperature and the pressure applied to it is equal to its critical pressure.
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