Separation Of Substances


In our daily life, we come across so many substances that need to be separated from other substances in a mixture. For example separation of stones, small insects and husk from grains before cooking. There are various techniques that are used for the separation of substances from other substances.

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The separation technique is a method in which mass transfer takes place and converts a mixture of substances into two or more substances. Examples: handpicking, winnowing, threshing, sedimentation, filtration etc.  Two or more substances which are separated using various methods of separation can be useful or useless.

Sometimes both the substances being separated are important. On the other hand sometimes only one of the substances is useful and the other is useless. Segregation of substances is also used to remove harmful substances from useful substances.

Separation Of Substances

Need for Separation of Substances:

  • To get two or more useful products.
  • To remove impurities from the useful product or remove the harmful substances from the useful substances.

Segregation of substances is carried out in two ways:

Dry conditions: Some mixtures are separated in a dry state. No liquid is added while separating substances. Some of the separation techniques carried out in dry conditions are handpicking, threshing, winnowing, and sieving.

  1. Handpicking is a method in which impurities are removed just by picking the impure substances by hands.
  2. Threshing is a method used to remove stalks from the grains.
  3. Winnowing is a method in which heavier components of the mixture are separated from the lighter components with the help of wind.

Wet conditions: Substances can be separated into a liquid or aqueous state. Separation techniques used under this condition are sedimentation, decantation etc.

Substances can be separated according to their size, solubility, weight, density or materials etc. These materials can be solids, liquids, or gases.

This was just a brief layout of the distinction between substances and its various methods. To learn more about this concept, register with BYJU’S now!

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  1. This is very good stuff to read and its simple

  2. Thanks for the answer 🙄

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