NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 PDF Free Download

Looking for NCERT solutions for class 11 Biology for Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration? Look no further as your search ends here. We at BYJU’S provide NCERT Solutions for class 11 chapterwise, solved by a panel of experts having extensive knowledge. Solutions are researched thoroughly to bring to students in one of the best, easy to understand pattern.

At BYJU’S, we aim at rendering solutions in the simplest yet innovative and interesting methodology which keeps students glued to learning concepts the better way. NCERT solutions are your answer to kick-start your preparations as questions are solved in a way that students find easier to understand even if concepts have been forgotten. It is a great tool to brush concepts with, a considerable reference tool and an even better tool to learn from, not only for board examinations but also for competitive exams.

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 1
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 2
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 3
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 4
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 5
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination And Integration 6

Access Answers of Biology NCERT class 11 Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

1. Define the following:

(a) Exocrine gland

(b) Endocrine gland

(c) Hormone

Solution:

  1. Exocrine gland – these are the glands that liberate their secretions into ducts conveying either on the surface of the body or to particular organs of the body
  2. Endocrine gland – these are ductless glands which liberate their secretions into the bloodstream, conveying it to target organs that are located at a distance
  3. Hormone – It is a non-nutrient chemical that serves as a intercellular messenger and is secreted in trace amounts

2. Diagrammatically indicate the location of the various endocrine glands in our body.

Solution:

The diagram depicting the locations of different endocrine glands in the body are as follows:

Biology - chapter 22 - image 1

3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(a) Hypothalamus

(b) Pituitary

(c) Thyroid

(d) Parathyroid

(e) Adrenal

(f) Pancreas

(g) Testis

(h) Ovary

(i) Thymus

(j) Atrium

(k) Kidney

(l) G-I Tract

Solution:

The hormones secreted by the following structures are as follows:

Name of the structure

Hormone secreted

Hypothalamus

Releasing hormone

Inhibiting hormone

  • Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ARH)
  • Thyrotropin-releasing hormone(TRH)
  • Lutenising hormone-releasing hormone(LH-RH)
  • Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (FSH – RH)
  • Prolactin-releasing hormone(PRH)
  • Growth hormone – releasing hormone
  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone – releasing hormone
  • Growth inhibiting hormone
  • Prolactin inhibiting hormone
  • Melanocyte stimulating hormone – inhibiting hormone

Pituitary

Neurohyophysis –

  • Oxytocin
  • Anti-diuretic hormone (Vasopressin)

Adenohypophysis –

  • Follicle-stimulating hormone(FSH)
  • Growth hormone (GH)
  • Leutinising hormone (LH)
  • Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)
  • Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

Intermediate lobe –

  • Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Thyroid

  • Calcitonin
  • Tri-iodothyronine(T3)
  • Tetraiodothyronine/Thyroxine(T4)

Parathyroid

Parathormone(PTH)

Adrenal

Adrenal cortex – Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids

Adrenal medulla – Adrenaline, Noradrenaline

Pancreas

Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin

Testis

Testosterone, Androsterone

Ovary

Relaxin, Oestrogen, Progesterone,

Thymus

Thymosin

Atrium

Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

Kidney

Erythropoietin

G-I Tract

Stomach – Gastrin

Intestine – Secretin, Enterogastrone, Cholecystokinin, Enterocrinin, Duocrinin

Liver – Angiotensinogen

4. Fill in the blanks:

Hormones Target gland

(a) Hypothalamic hormones __________________

(b) Thyrotrophin (TSH) __________________

(c) Corticotrophin (ACTH) __________________

(d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH) __________________

(e) Melanotrophin (MSH) __________________

Solution:

(a) Hypothalamic hormones – Pituitary gland

(b) Thyrotrophin (TSH) – Thyroid gland

(c) Corticotrophin (ACTH) – adrenal cortex

(d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH) – Testis and ovaries

(e) Melanotrophin (MSH) – Pigment cells of the dermis of the skin

5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(a) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

(b) Thyroid hormones

(c) Thymosins

(d) Androgens

(e) Estrogens

(f) Insulin and Glucagon

Solution:

  1. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)
    • It is a peptide hormone secreted by the parathyroid gland
    • Its secretion is regulated by the circulating levels of calcium ions
    • The PTH causes an increase in the levels of calcium ions in the blood.
    • It acts on the bones thereby triggering the bone resorption process
    • Also, it triggers the reabsorption of calcium ions by the renal tubules, increases calcium ions absorption from the food that is digested
    • Hence, PTH is a hypercalcemic hormone – increases the blood Ca2+ levels
    • Has a critical role to play in balancing calcium in the body along with TCT, i.e., in calcium homeostasis.
  2. Thyroid hormones

    Thyroxine/tetraiodothyronine(T4)

    • It checks the basal metabolic rate(BMR) and body growth such as mental development and ossification of bones
    • Controls the weight of the body
    • Controls tissue differentiation and metamorphosis of the tadpole larva into an adult frog
    • Suppresses the formation of RBC
    • Tri-iodothyronine(T3) – Increases energy consumption and body’s oxygen . It also increases heart rate and force of contraction that increases the cardiac output
  3. Thymosin
    • Triggers the differentiation of T-lymphocytes providing cell-mediated immunity
    • It facilitates antibody production to provide humoral immunity
    • Triggers the rate of division of cell in children thereby promotes growth
  4. Androgens
    • The interstitial cells that are located in the intertubular space generate a collection of hormones known as androgens, testosterone mainly
    • Checks the maturation, development and functions of the male accessory sex organs such as vas deferens, epididymis, seminal vesicles, urethra, prostate gland etc
    • These trigger the growth of muscles, facial and axillary hair, low pitch of voice, aggressiveness etc
    • These play a critical stimulatory role in the phenomena of spermatogenesis
    • They act on the central neural system, influencing the male sexual behavior
    • They generate anabolic effects on carbohydrate metabolism and protein
  5. Estrogen
    • Triggers the development of ovarian follicles and the growth & development of the female reproductive organs namely the uterus, fallopian tube and vagina
    • Causes the FSH secretion to decrease and LH secretion to increase
    • Enhances the sensitivity of the uterus to the hormone – oxytocin
    • Facilitates the development of mammary gland
    • Regulation of female sexual behavior
  6. Insulin and glucagon

    Insulin

    • Regulates glucose homeostasis
    • Acts on adipocytes and hepatocytes
    • Triggers the transport of glucose to the muscles from blood
    • Facilitates the oxidation of glucose and brings about glycogenesis, i.e., conversion of glucose to glycogen causing hyperglycemia

    Glucagon

    • Critical in maintaining normal blood glucose levels
    • Acts on hepatocytes, triggering conversion of glycogen to glucose
    • Triggers the gluconeogenesis phenomena i.e., the conversion of non-carbohydrate particles namely – proteins and fats to glucose

6. Give example(s) of:

(a) Hyperglycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone

(b) Hypercalcemic hormone

(c) Gonadotrophic hormones

(d) Progestational hormone

(e) Blood pressure lowering hormone

(f) Androgens and estrogens

Solution:

(a) Hyperglycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone – Glucagon and Insulin respectively

(b) Hypercalcemic hormone – Parathormone hormone (PTH)

(c) Gonadotrophic hormones – Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing

Hormone (LH)

(d) Progestational hormone – Progesterone

(e) Blood pressure lowering hormone – Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

(f) Androgens and estrogens – Androgen – Testosterone and androsterone

Estrogen – β- oestradiol

7. Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following?

(a) Diabetes mellitus

(b) Goitre

(c) Cretinism

Solution:

The hormonal deficiency that is responsible for the following are:

(a) Diabetes mellitus – Insulin (inadequate secretion) caused due to abnormally high glucose levels in the blood

(b) Goitre – Thyroxin (inadequate secretion)

(c) Cretinism – Thyroid (inadequate secretion)

8. Briefly mention the mechanism of action of FSH.

Solution:

Follicle stimulating hormone or FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which is not soluble in lipid and therefore cannot enter the target cell. The FSH binds to the surface of the cell thereby activating the cellular systems to carry out its functionalities.

Mechanism of FSH

  • FSH molecule binds to the receptor protein located on the surface of the cell forming the hormone-receptor complex
  • The formation of hormone causes the receptor complex to activate the adenyl cyclase enzyme
  • This enzyme converts ATP to cyclic AMP as a second messenger which inturn activates the

follicular cells of membrane of granulose to produce estrogens.

9. Match the following:

Column I

Column II

(a) T4

(i) Hypothalamus

(b) PTH

(ii) Thyroid

(c) GnRH

(iii) Pituitary

(d) LH

(iv) Parathyroid

Solution:

Column I

Column II

(a) T4

(ii) Thyroid

(b) PTH

(iv) Parathyroid

(c) GnRH

(i) Hypothalamus

(d) LH

(iii) Pituitary

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration is the last chapter grouped under Unit 5 – Human Physiology. As per the question paper design for Biology, students can expect close to 18 marks from this chapter alone. This means to say that approximately 25% of the question paper will comprise of questions from all chapters covered in this unit.

One of the ways of assessing information acquired by students is by conducting examinations. Students are assessed in examination by asking different types of questions, this way examiner gets to understand how different concepts are interpreted by students.

The different types of questions that can be asked in order to assess various capabilities of students are as follows:

  • Remembering – knowledge-based questions
  • Understanding – judging comprehension
  • Application type of question
  • High order thinking skills – assessing analysis and synthesis
  • Evaluation

List of subtopics covered in Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

Number

Subtopic

22.1

Endocrine Glands and Hormones

22.2

Human Endocrine System

22.3

Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract

22.4

Mechanism of Hormone Action

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

Chemical Coordination and integration is the last chapter covered in class 11 under unit 5 – Human physiology. Neural coordination is fast but is short-lived. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions of the body. Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that act as intercellular messengers and are generated in trace amounts which play a crucial role in the endocrine system.

Some of the topics covered are the human endocrine system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovary, mechanism of hormone action.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

  • NCERT solutions are framed by extracting content from the NCERT textbook
  • Diagrams used are neatly labelled and self-explanatory
  • Conceptual based learning promoted
  • Answering methodologies as per the expected pattern
  • Solutions developed by subject experts

Frequently Asked Questions on Chemical Coordination and integration

Define Exocrine gland?

Exocrine gland – these are the glands that liberate their secretions into ducts conveying either on the surface of the body or to particular organs of the body

Define Endocrine gland?

Endocrine gland – these are ductless glands which liberate their secretions into the bloodstream, conveying it to target organs that are located at a distance

Define Hormone?

Hormone – It is a non-nutrient chemical that serves as a intercellular messenger and is secreted in trace amounts

Leave a Comment

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *