NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration

Looking for NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 Chemical Coordination and Integration? Your search ends here. We at BYJU’S provide NCERT Solutions for Class 11 chapter-wise, solved by a panel of experts having extensive knowledge according to the latest update on the term – II CBSE Syllabus 2021-22. Solutions are researched thoroughly to bring to students one of the best and easy to understand patterns.

At BYJU’S, we aim at rendering solutions in the simplest yet innovative and interesting methodology which keeps students glued to learning the concepts in a better way. NCERT Solutions are your one-stop place to kick-start your preparations as questions are solved in a way that students find easier to understand even if concepts have been forgotten. It is a great tool to brush concepts with a considerable reference tool, and an even better tool to learn from, not only for second term examinations but also for competitive exams.

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 1
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 2
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 3
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 4
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 5
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 6
ncert solutions for class 11 biology chapter 22 7

Access Answers to NCERT Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

Exercise Questions Page Number – 329

1. Define the following:

(a) Exocrine gland

(b) Endocrine gland

(c) Hormone

Solution:

1. Exocrine gland – These glands liberate their secretions into ducts conveying either on the surface of the body or to particular organs of the body

2. Endocrine gland – These ductless glands liberate their secretions into the bloodstream, conveying it to target organs located at a distance

3. Hormone – It is a non-nutrient chemical which serves as a intercellular messenger and is secreted in trace amounts

2. Diagrammatically indicate the location of the various endocrine glands in our body.

Solution:

The diagram indicating the location of the various endocrine glands in our body are:

Biology - chapter 22 - image 1

3. List the hormones secreted by the following:

(a) Hypothalamus

(b) Pituitary

(c) Thyroid

(d) Parathyroid

(e) Adrenal

(f) Pancreas

(g) Testis

(h) Ovary

(i) Thymus

(j) Atrium

(k) Kidney

(l) G-I Tract

Solution:

The hormones secreted by the following structures are as follows:

Name of the structure Hormone secreted
Hypothalamus Releasing hormone Inhibiting hormone
Adrenocorticotropin-releasing hormone (ARH)

Thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH)

Lutenising hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH)

Follicle-stimulating hormone-releasing hormone (FSH – RH)

Prolactin-releasing hormone (PRH)

Growth hormone – releasing hormone

Melanocyte stimulating hormone – releasing hormone

Growth inhibiting hormone

Prolactin inhibiting hormone

Melanocyte stimulating hormone – inhibiting hormone

Pituitary Neurohyophysis –

Oxytocin

Anti-diuretic hormone (Vasopressin)

Adenohypophysis –

Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

Growth hormone (GH)

Leutinising hormone (LH)

Thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)

Adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)

Intermediate lobe –

Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH)

Thyroid Calcitonin

Tri-iodothyronine(T3)

Tetraiodothyronine/Thyroxine(T4)

Parathyroid Parathormone (PTH)
Adrenal Adrenal cortex – Mineralocorticoids, Glucocorticoids

Adrenal medulla – Adrenaline, Noradrenaline

Pancreas Glucagon, Insulin, Somatostatin
Testis Testosterone, Androsterone
Ovary Relaxin, Oestrogen, Progesterone,
Thymus Thymosin
Atrium Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)
Kidney Erythropoietin
G-I Tract Stomach – Gastrin

Intestine – Secretin, Enterogastrone, Cholecystokinin, Enterocrinin, Duocrinin

Liver – Angiotensinogen

4. Fill in the blanks:

Hormones Target gland

(a) Hypothalamic hormones __________________

(b) Thyrotrophin (TSH) __________________

(c) Corticotrophin (ACTH) __________________

(d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH) __________________

(e) Melanotrophin (MSH) __________________

Solution:

(a) Hypothalamic hormones – Pituitary gland

(b) Thyrotrophin (TSH) – Thyroid gland

(c) Corticotrophin (ACTH) – adrenal cortex

(d) Gonadotrophins (LH, FSH) – Testis and ovaries

(e) Melanotrophin (MSH) – Pigment cells of the dermis of the skin

5. Write short notes on the functions of the following hormones:

(a) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

(b) Thyroid hormones

(c) Thymosins

(d) Androgens

(e) Estrogens

(f) Insulin and Glucagon

Solution:

(a) Parathyroid hormone (PTH)

1. It is a peptide hormone which is secreted by the parathyroid gland

2. The circulating levels of calcium ions regulates its secretion

3. The levels of calcium ions in the blood is increased by PTH.

4. The bone resorption process is triggered by PTH.

5. The reabsorption of calcium ions by the renal tubules is triggered which increases calcium ions absorption from the food that is digested

6. PTH is a hypercalcemic hormone which increases the blood Ca2+ levels

7. It has a critical role to play in balancing calcium in the body along with TCT, i.e., in calcium homeostasis.

(b) Thyroid hormones Thyroxine/tetraiodothyronine(T4)

1. This hormone checks the basal metabolic rate (BMR) and body growth such as mental development and ossification of bones

2. The body weight is controlled.

3. It controls the tissue differentiation and metamorphosis of tadpole larva into an adult frog

4. Formation of RBC is suppressed

5. Tri-iodothyronine(T3) – The energy consumption and body’s oxygen are increased. It also increases heart rate and force of contraction which inturn increases the cardiac output

(c) Thymosin

1. The differentiation of T-lymphocytes is triggered which provides cell-mediated immunity

2. The antibody production is facilitated to provide humoral immunity

3. The rate of division of cell in children is triggered thereby promotes growth

(d) Androgens

1. The interstitial cells located in the intertubular space generate a collection of hormones called as androgens, testosterone mainly

2. Checks the maturation, development and functions of the male accessory sex organs such as epididymis, vas deferens, urethra, seminal vesicles, prostate gland etc.

3. These trigger the growth of facial and axillary hair, muscles, aggressiveness, low pitch of voice etc.

4. In the phenomena of spermatogenesis, these play a critical stimulatory role

5. They act on the central neural system which influences the male sexual behavior

6. They generate anabolic effects on carbohydrate metabolism and protein

(e) Estrogen

1. It triggers the development of ovarian follicles and the growth & development of the female reproductive organs namely the fallopian tube, uterus and vagina

2. It causes the LH secretion to increase and FSH secretion to decrease

3. The sensitivity of the uterus to the hormone – oxytocin is enhanced

4. The development of mammary gland is facilitated

5. The female sexual behavior is regulated.

(f) Insulin

1. Glucose homeostasis is regulated

2. It acts on hepatocytes and adipocytes

3. The transport of glucose to the muscles from blood is triggered

4. The oxidation of glucose is facilitated and brings about glycogenesis, i.e., the conversion of glucose to glycogen causing hyperglycemia

Glucagon

1. It is critical in maintaining normal blood glucose levels

2. Acts on hepatocytes which triggers the conversion of glycogen to glucose

3. The gluconeogenesis phenomena is triggered i.e., the conversion of non-carbohydrate particles namely – proteins and fats to glucose

6. Give example(s) of:

(a) Hyperglycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone

(b) Hypercalcemic hormone

(c) Gonadotrophic hormones

(d) Progestational hormone

(e) Blood pressure lowering hormone

(f) Androgens and estrogens

Solution:

(a) Hyperglycemic hormone and hypoglycemic hormone – Glucagon and Insulin respectively

(b) Hypercalcemic hormone – Parathormone hormone (PTH)

(c) Gonadotrophic hormones – Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH)

(d) Progestational hormone – Progesterone

(e) Blood pressure lowering hormone – Atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)

(f) Androgens and estrogens – Androgen – Testosterone and androsterone

Estrogen – β- oestradiol

7. Which hormonal deficiency is responsible for the following?

(a) Diabetes mellitus

(b) Goitre

(c) Cretinism

Solution:

The hormonal deficiency that is responsible for the following are:

(a) Diabetes mellitus – Insulin (inadequate secretion) which is caused due to abnormally high glucose levels in the blood

(b) Goitre – Thyroxin (inadequate secretion)

(c) Cretinism – Thyroid (inadequate secretion)

8. Briefly mention the mechanism of action of FSH.

Solution:

Follicle stimulating hormone or FSH is a glycoprotein polypeptide hormone which is not soluble in lipid and therefore cannot enter the target cell. It binds to the surface of the cell which activates the cellular systems to carry out its functionalities.

Mechanism of FSH

1. FSH molecule binds to the receptor protein which is located on the surface of the cell forming the hormone-receptor complex

2. The formation of hormone causes the receptor complex to activate the adenyl cyclase enzyme

3. This enzyme converts ATP to cyclic AMP as a second messenger which inturn activates the follicular cells of membrane of granulose to produce estrogens.

9. Match the following:

Column I Column II
(a) T4 (i) Hypothalamus
(b) PTH (ii) Thyroid
(c) GnRH (iii) Pituitary
(d) LH (iv) Parathyroid

Solution:

Column I Column II
(a) T4 (ii) Thyroid
(b) PTH (iv) Parathyroid
(c) GnRH (i) Hypothalamus
(d) LH (iii) Pituitary

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration is the last chapter grouped under Unit 5 – Human Physiology. As per the question paper design for Biology, students can expect close to 18 marks from this chapter alone. This means to say that approximately 25% of the question paper will comprise of questions from all chapters covered in this unit.

One of the ways of assessing information acquired by students is by conducting examinations. Students are assessed in examination by asking different types of questions, this way examiner gets to understand how different concepts are interpreted by students.

The different types of questions that can be asked in order to assess various capabilities of students are as follows:

  • Remembering – knowledge-based questions
  • Understanding – judging comprehension
  • Application type of question
  • High order thinking skills – assessing analysis and synthesis
  • Evaluation

List of subtopics covered in Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

Number Subtopic
22.1 Endocrine Glands and Hormones
22.2 Human Endocrine System
22.3 Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
22.4 Mechanism of Hormone Action

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

Chemical Coordination and Integration is the last chapter covered in Class 11 under Unit 5 – Human physiology and included in the term – II CBSE Syllabus for the academic session 2021-22. Neural coordination is fast but is short-lived. The neural system and the endocrine system jointly coordinate and regulate the physiological functions of the body. Hormones are non-nutrient chemicals that act as intercellular messengers and are generated in trace amounts which play a crucial role in the endocrine system.

Some of the topics covered are the human endocrine system, the hypothalamus, the pituitary gland, pineal gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, thymus, adrenal gland, pancreas, testis, ovary, mechanism of hormone action.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22 – Chemical Coordination and Integration

  • NCERT Solutions are framed by extracting content from the prescribed textbook
  • Diagrams used are neatly labelled and self-explanatory
  • Conceptual based learning is promoted
  • The answering methodologies as per the term – II exam pattern are followed
  • Solutions are developed by the subject experts

Frequently Asked Questions on NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 22

What is the difference between exocrine and endocrine gland in the Chapter 22 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

Exocrine gland – The glands which liberate their secretions into ducts conveying to particular organs of the body or on the surface of the body.
Endocrine gland – The ductless glands which liberate their secretions into the bloodstream conveying it to the target organs which are located at a distance.

What are the functions of glucagon covered in the Chapter 22 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

The functions of glucagon covered in the Chapter 22 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are –
1. Important to maintain normal blood glucose levels.
2. It acts on hepatocytes which helps in the conversion of glycogen to glucose.
3. Helps in the conversion of non carbohydrate particles like fats and proteins to glucose known as the gluconeogenesis phenomena.

What are the important concepts discussed in the Chapter 22 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology?

The important concepts discussed in the Chapter 22 of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology are –
22.1 – Endocrine Glands and Hormones
22.2 – Human Endocrine System
22.3 – Hormones of Heart, Kidney and Gastrointestinal Tract
22.4 – Mechanism of Hormone Action

Leave a Comment

Your Mobile number and Email id will not be published. Required fields are marked *

*

*

BOOK

Free Class