NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification

NCERT Solutions For Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 PDF Free Download

Looking for NCERT solutions for class 11 Biology for Chapter 2 Biological Classification? Look no further, because we at BYJU’S have got you covered. NCERT solutions are proven to be the go-to resource for students following the CBSE board. It is the apt resource for students who are looking for the most precise and accurate solutions to all the questions and completely reliable a source.

We at BYJU’S offer NCERT Solutions for class 11 which can be readily accessed and downloaded at the comfort of students. These solutions have been framed fervently with the exclusive aim of benefitting students, hence they have been framed by professionals having years of experience with the same.

Biology is a vast subject, constantly evolving and advancing with developments in the fields of science and technology. In the quest of learning concepts in an interesting approach, revision of concepts are always better if backed with a thorough review from NCERT solutions for class 11 Biology available in a downloadable format at BYJU’S.

Download PDF of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 – Biological Classification

NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification Part 1
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification Part 2
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification Part 3
NCERT Solution Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 Biological Classification Part 4

Access Answers of Biology NCERT class 11 Chapter 2 – Biological Classification

1. Discuss how classification systems have undergone several changes over a period of time?

Solution:

Aristotle was the first person to introduce scientific classification. He used simple morphological characters to classify plants into trees, shrubs and herbs. He also divided animals into two groups, those which had red blood and those that did not.

Linnaeus introduced two-kingdom classification which includes Plantae and Animalia i.e., plants and animals respectively. But this classification did not classify eukaryotes and prokaryotes, unicellular and multicellular organisms, photosynthetic (green algae) and non-photosynthetic (fungi) organisms. Hence this system was found to be less significant as it did not include many more characteristics.

Thus, classification of living organisms underwent several changes. R.H Whittaker introduced five-kingdom classification which includes Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae and Animalia. Some characteristics that were included in this classification are – cell structure, body organization, nutrition mode, mode of reproduction and phylogenetic relationship to classify the organisms.

After this, the three-domain system was proposed which divided Kingdom Monera into two domains, leaving the remaining eukaryotic kingdoms in the third domain and thereby a six kingdom classification.

2. State two economically important uses of:

(a) heterotrophic bacteria

(b) archaebacteria

Solution:

a) Heterotrophic bacteria are used in the production of vitamins, antibiotics, production of cheese and curd.

They help in fixing nitrogen and are used in the formation of Humus.

b) Archaebacteria is used in the production of Biogas.

They are used in bioleaching of mines.

3. What is the nature of cell-walls in diatoms?

Solution:

In diatoms, cell walls are embedded with silica imparting characteristic patterns onto the walls and are indestructible. Because of this diatoms leave behind large amount of cell wall deposits in their habitat which accumulates to form ‘diatomaceous earth’.

4. Find out what do the terms ‘algal bloom’ and ‘red-tides’ signify

Solution:

Algal blooms are found in polluted water. They are the excessive growth of algae, especially blue-green algae

(Cyanobacteria). Their growth results in pollution of water. They inhale carbon dioxide and expel out Oxygen.

Rapid multiplication of red-pigmented dinoflagellates such as Gonyaulax imparts a red colour to the sea, this phenomenon is called as red tides. These algae produce toxins which kills fish and other aquatic entities.

5. How are viroids different from viruses?

Solution:

  • Viroids are short infectious agents having a single-stranded RNA without protein coat whereas viruses have a single-stranded or double-stranded RNA encapsulated with a protein coat.
  • Viroids are very small in size compared to viruses.
  • Viroids infect only plants whereas viruses infect both plants, animals and microorganisms.

6. Describe briefly the four major groups of Protozoa

Solution:

Four major groups of Protozoa are as follows

Amoeboid protozoans: Found in aquatic environment; they move and catch their prey using pseudopodia.

Flagellated protozoans: These protozoans are either free-living or parasitic. Their locomotory structure is flagella.

Ciliated protozoans: They live in an aquatic environment and presence of cilia makes them move actively.

Sporozoans: They include diverse organisms, producing infectious spores in their lifecycle. Their spore-like phase helps them to get transferred from one to another host.

7. Plants are autotrophic. Can you think of some plants that are partially heterotrophic?

Solution:

Insectivores and carnivores plants are partially heterotrophic, these beings are green and autotrophic but for their nitrogen supply, they prey and digest small entities. Ex; Utricularia, Drosera, Nepenthes.

8. What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?

Solution:

Lichens are the symbiotic association of fungi and algae. Phycobiont is algae part and mycobiont is fungi part of the association. Mycobiont provides a structural covering that protects algae from the unfavorable condition. Similarly Phycobionts prepares food by the process of photosynthesis, which will be utilized by both the organisms.

9. Give a comparative account of the classes of Kingdom Fungi under the following:

(i) mode of nutrition (ii) mode of reproduction

Solution:

Phycomycetes

Ascomycetes

Basidiomycetes

Deuteromycetes

Mode of reproduction

Asexual reproduction by zoospore (motile) Aplanospore (non-motile)

Sexual reproduction – zygote can be similar or dissimilar in morphology

Through asexual spores called conidia and sexual spores are known as ascospores

By vegetation reproduction through budding.

Fusion of two somatic cells for the formation of basidiospores is Plasmogamy

Through asexual spores called conidia.

Mode of nutrition

Saprophytic or parasitic

Decomposers, Saprophytic or parasitic or coprophilous

Saprophytic

Decomposers, Saprophytic or parasitic

10. What are the characteristic features of Euglenoids?

Solution:

Characteristic features of Euglenoids are as follows:

  • Absence of a cell wall
  • Their body is flexible due to the presence of protein-rich layer called pellicle.
  • Two flagella are found that are of different length.
  • They are autotrophic in the presence of sunlight and heterotrophic in the absence of sunlight.

11. Give a brief account of viruses with respect to their structure and nature of genetic material. Also name four common viral diseases.

Solution:

Viruses are the infectious agents which are crystalline in structure when found outside the host cell. Genetic material will be either DNA or RNA (never both) which are present inside the protein core. The virus that infects plants has single-stranded RNA whereas viruses that infect animals are either single or double-stranded DNA or RNA. The capsid is their protein coat that inturn is made of smaller subunits known as capsomeres, guarding the nucleic acid.

Common viral diseases are –Influenza, AIDS, Herpes and Rabies

12. Organise a discussion in your class on the topic – Are viruses living or nonliving?

Solution:

Living Characters

  • They are host-specific
  • Presence of genetic material
  • Ability to multiply
  • They have antigenic properties
  • They are obligate parasites
  • Mutations occur

Non-living Characters

  • The cellular structure is absent
  • They can be stored in bottles like crystals
  • Energy storing or energy liberating systems are absent
  • They cannot grow or multiply outside the host.

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 – Biological Classification

Chapter 2 – Biological Classification is covered under Unit 1 – Diversity in the Living World. As per past trends, this particular unit contributes nearly – 10% of the total weightage of the question paper, roughly about 7-8 marks for Unit 1.

There are different types of questions appearing in the question paper hence requires the attention of students with the following typology of questions:

  • Remembering – knowledge-based questions
  • Understanding – judging comprehension
  • Application type of question
  • High order thinking skills – assessing analysis and synthesis
  • Evaluation

List of subtopics covered in Chapter 2 – Biological Classification:

Number

Subtopic

2.1

Kingdom Monera

2.2

Kingdom Protista

2.3

Kingdom Fungi

2.4

Kingdom Plantae

2.5

Viruses, Viroids, Prions And Lichens

NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 – Biological Classification

Simple differences in the morphological characteristics initially led to the classification of plant and animal species, which further paved the way for classification that was backed by definite scientific research and study. The main criteria for the five-kingdom classification were body organisation, cell structure, mode of nutrition, reproduction, phylogenetic relationships. In this kingdom of classification, bacteria were included in the Kingdom Monera while bacteria are cosmopolitan in the distribution.

These entities exhibit tremendous metabolic diversity. Where entities belonging to Kingdom Protista include single-celled eukaryotes, species of Kingdom Fungi exhibit great diversity in their habitat and structure. Kingdom Plantae compromises of all eukaryotic chlorophyll-containing entities while Kingdom Animalia includes heterotrophic eukaryotic, multicellular entities that lack a cell wall.

Key Features of NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Biology Chapter 2 – Biological Classification

  • Solutions layout the exact answers
  • An extremely helpful tool in supporting preparation
  • Readily available
  • Download solutions for free
  • Solutions are to the point and crisp
  • Pointers are used wherever necessary

Frequently Asked Questions on Biological Classification

What is the nature of cell-walls in diatoms?

In diatoms, cell walls are embedded with silica imparting characteristic patterns onto the walls and are indestructible. Because of this diatoms leave behind large amount of cell wall deposits in their habitat which accumulates to form ‘diatomaceous earth’.

Define the term ‘algal bloom’ ?

Algal blooms are found in polluted water. They are the excessive growth of algae, especially blue-green algae
(Cyanobacteria). Their growth results in pollution of water. They inhale carbon dioxide and expel out Oxygen.

Define the term ‘red-tides’ ?

Rapid multiplication of red-pigmented dinoflagellates such as Gonyaulax imparts a red colour to the sea, this phenomenon is called as red tides. These algae produce toxins which kills fish and other aquatic entities.

How are viroids different from viruses?

  • Viroids are short infectious agents having a single-stranded RNA without protein coat whereas viruses have a single-stranded or double-stranded RNA encapsulated with a protein coat.
  • Viroids are very small in size compared to viruses.
  • Viroids infect only plants whereas viruses infect both plants, animals and microorganisms.

What do the terms phycobiont and mycobiont signify?

Lichens are the symbiotic association of fungi and algae. Phycobiont is algae part and mycobiont is fungi part of the association. Mycobiont provides a structural covering that protects algae from the unfavorable condition. Similarly Phycobionts prepares food by the process of photosynthesis, which will be utilized by both the organisms.

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