Morphology is the name given to the science that deals with the study of the form and structure of things. No matter which plant you take, essential parts of its structure remain common, for example, the roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Morphology of Flowering Plants
When we take morphology, a plant has two systems root system and shoot system. The underground part is called the root while the one above is named the shoot.
There are three types of the root system. The taproot system which is mainly present in dicotyledonous plants and the primary root, along with its branches, makes the tap root system, e.g. mustard and banyan. While the fibrous root system is mainly present in monocotyledonous plants and the primary root is short-lived after germination e.g. wheat, paddy, grass, etc. The last one is the adventitious root system, sometimes roots arise from other plant parts used for various purposes, like vegetative propagation, mechanical support, etc. General functions of a root include storage, absorption of water and minerals, etc. The three regions of a root are-
- The region of maturation,
- The region of Elongation
- The Root Cap.
Another essential part of the plant is its stem. It is the ascending part of the plant axis which bears branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and helps in the conduction of water and minerals. Young stems are usually green in color and subsequently becomes woody and brown. Modifications of the stem include the modification for food storage, defense, climbing, photosynthesis, etc.
While the leaf is a laterally borne structure and usually flattened. The main parts of leaf include the leaf base, petiole, and lamina. The arrangement of veins and veinlets in a leaf are called venation. Modification of leaves into tendrils, spines, and bulbs do happen.The arrangement of flowers on floral axis is called inflorescence, which has two major parts called racemose which let the main axis continue to grow and cymose which terminates the main axis in a flow.
The flower is the reproductive organ. There are four kinds of whorls. Calyx, the outermost, Corolla, composed of petals, androecium, composed of stamens and gynoecium, composed of one or more carpels. The fruit is the characteristic feature of flowering plants, which is a ripened or mature ovary and the seed is what the ovules develop into after fertilization. They are further separated into monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous.
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