Morphology is the name given to the science that deals with the study of the form and structure of things. No matter which plant you take, essential parts of its structure remain common, for example, the roots, stem, leaves, flowers, and fruits.
Morphology of Flowering Plants
When we look into the morphology of a flowering plant, a plant has two systems root system and shoot system. The underground part is called the root while the one above is named the shoot.
There are three types of the root system:
- The taproot system which is mainly present in dicotyledonous plants. The primary root, along with its branches, makes the tap root system, e.g. mustard and banyan.
- The fibrous root system is mainly present in monocotyledonous plants. The primary root is short-lived after germination e.g. wheat, paddy, grass, etc.
- The adventitious root system where the roots arise from other plant parts used for various purposes, like vegetative propagation, mechanical support, etc.
Functions of Root
General functions of a root include:
- absorption of water and minerals,
Regions of Root
The three regions of a root are-
- The region of maturation,
- The region of Elongation
- The Root Cap.
Also Read: Modifications of Root
Another essential part of the plant is its stem. It is the ascending part of the plant axis which bears branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and helps in the conduction of water and minerals.
Young stems are usually green in colour and subsequently becomes woody and brown. The stem is modified into certain structures according to the function they perform.
Characteristics of Stem
Some of the important characteristics of the stem are:
- The stem develops from the plumule and epicotyl of the embryo.
- The stem is erect and grows away from the soil towards the light.
- There is a terminal bud at the apex of the stem.
- In angiosperms, the shoot is differentiated into nodes and internodes.
- Young stems are green and photosynthetic.
- Multicellular hair are present.
- The stem and branches of mature plants bear fruits and flowers.
Different forms of Stem
The stem is modified into the following different forms:
Also Read: Stem Modifications
The leaf is a laterally borne structure and usually flattened. It is the main photosynthetic part of the plants. It absorbs light and helps in the exchange of gases through the stomata. Leaves can be simple or compound.
The main parts of the leaf include the leaf base, petiole, and lamina. They grow at the node and bears a bud at the axil. The arrangement of veins and veinlets in a leaf are called venation. The leaves are green because of the presence of the photosynthetic pigment chlorophyll.
Characteristics of Leaf
- The leaf arises from the node.
- It is exogenous in origin.
- It has a bud at its axis.
- The growth of the leaf is limited.
- The leaves do not bear an apical bud.
Modifications of Leaves
Leaves are modified according to the functions they perform. The different structural forms of leaves include:
- Leaf Tendrils
- Storage Leaves
- Insect-catching leaves
Functions of Leaves
Some of the important functions performed by leaves are:
Also Read: Morphology of Leaves
The flowers are the reproductive part of the plant. The arrangement of flowers on the floral axis is called inflorescence, which has two major parts called racemose which let the main axis continue to grow and cymose which terminates the main axis in a flow.
The flower consists of four different whorls:
- Calyx, the outermost
- Corolla, composed of petals
- Androecium, composed of stamens
- Gynoecium, composed of one or more carpels.
The reproduction occurs by the process of pollination. It is the process of transfer of pollen from the anther to the stigma of the same or different plants.
Functions of Flower
The flower performs the following important functions:
- They help in the process of reproduction.
- They produce diaspores without fertilization.
- The gametophytes develop inside the flower.
- The flowers attract insects and birds which then act as a medium to transfer the pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of some other flower.
- The ovary of the flower develops into a fruit that contains seed.
Fruit and Seed
The fruit is the characteristic feature of flowering plants, which is a ripened or mature ovary and the seed is what the ovules develop into after fertilization. The seed is made up of a seed coat and an embryo. They are further separated into monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous.
During the development of the fruit, the wall of the ovary becomes the pericarp. In some plants, the ovary wall dries out completely, while in some it remains fleshy.
The fruit that develops without fertilization is known as parthenocarpic.
Also Read: Anatomy of Flowering Plants
To learn in more detail about the morphology of flowering plants, keep visiting BYJU’S – The Learning app, or download BYJU’S app for further reference.