Enzymes are proteins with catalytic capabilities that are essential for maintaining the various activities of life. Metabolic processes in the cell are carried out by enzymes that are necessary to sustain life. At the initial stage of the process upon which enzymes reacts on a molecule is called substrates. Enzymes convert these into other distinct molecules that are called products. Metabolic paths occurring in the cells are determined by a set of enzymes.
Structure of an Enzyme
- Enzymes are a linear chain of amino acids that generate the three-dimensional structure. The sequence of amino acids enumerates the structure which in turn identifies the catalytic activity of the enzyme. The structure of the enzyme denatures when heated leading to loss of enzyme activity. It is typically connected to temperature.
- Enzymes are larger than their substrates. Sizes vary in the wide range from sixty-two amino acid residues to an average of two thousand five hundred residues present within fatty acid synthase.
- Only a small section of the structure is involved in catalysis. They are situated next to binding sites. The catalytic site and binding site together constitute the enzyme’s active site.
- A small number of ribozymes exists which serves as an RNA-based biological catalyst. It reacts in complex with proteins.
Classification Of Enzymes -Types of Enzymes
The enzymes are classified into 6 types based on the type of the reaction in which they are used to catalyze. The enzymes are oxidoreductases, hydrolases, transferases, lyases, isomerases, ligases.
- The Hydrolases, transferases and the oxidoreductases are the different kinds of those enzymes that are more readily heard of whereas the other enzymes are less in common.
- The enzyme Oxidoreductase catalyzes the oxidation reaction where the electrons tend to travel from one form of a molecule to the other. The Transferases enzymes help in the transportation of the functional group present in one molecule to the other. The Hydrolases catalyze the hydrolysis reaction.
- The Isomerases enzymes catalyze the structural shifts present in a molecule, thus causing the change in the shape of the molecule. Ligases are known to charge the catalysis of a ligation process.
- Beverages: Alcoholic beverages generated by fermentation vary a lot based on many factors. Based on the type of the plants product which is to be used and the type of the enzyme applied, the fermented product varies. For example grapes, honey, hops, wheat, cassava roots, and potatoes depending upon the materials available. Beers, wines and other drinks are produced from plant fermentation.
- Food Products: Bread can be considered as the finest example of fermentation in our everyday life. A small proportion of yeast and sugar is mixed with the batter for making bread. Then one can observe that the bread gets puffed up as a result of fermentation of the sugar by the enzyme action in yeast, which leads to the formation of carbon dioxide gas. This process gives the texture to the bread which would be missing in the absence of fermentation process.
- Drug Action: Enzyme action can be inhibited or promoted by the use of drugs which tend to work around the active sites of enzymes.
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