Proteins

Proteins

We often see bodybuilders and physical trainer drinking whey protein along with milk to build-up metabolism and strength.When it comes to our body, our hair and nails are mostly made of proteins. Basically, proteins are the fundamental building blocks of our body. They are large and complex macromolecules or bio-molecules which perform a major role in the functioning and regulating of our body cells, tissues and other organs in the human body. They are also used in providing strength to our body in producing hormones, enzymes, and other metabolic chemicals. They are also involved in functioning and regulating of our body cells, tissues and organs.

Proteins are composed of amino acids, arranged into different groups. These fundamental amino acids sequences are specific and its arrangements are controlled by the DNA. Since our body cannot synthesize these essential amino acids by its own, we should have plenty of protein foods in our everyday diet to keep our body metabolisms stable.

Protein Structure

Proteins Structure

In general, they are two types of protein molecules fibrous proteins and globular proteins. Fibrous proteins are insoluble and elongated. Globular proteins are soluble and compact. Fibrous and Globular proteins may comprise one or four types of protein structures and they include primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary structure.

Primary Structure: It is a specific sequence of amino acids. The order of amino acids bonded together is detected by information stored in genes.

Secondary Structure: It is a three-dimensional form of a local segment of proteins. They are formed by hydrogen bonds between the atoms along the backbone of the polypeptide chain.

Tertiary Structure: It is determined by R-groups. It is a three-dimensional shape of a protein. Many numbers of tertiary structure fold to form Quaternary Structure.

Quaternary Structure: It is the arrangement of multiple folded protein subunits in a multi-subunit complex.

Protein Synthesis

Protein synthesis takes place through a process called translation. This process occurs in the cytoplasm. It involves the rendering of genetic codes. Ribosomes of a cell help in translating genetic codes into a polypeptide chain. These polypeptide chains become functioning proteins only after undergoing certain modifications.

Sources of Protein

SOURCES OF PROTEINS

Although there are debates about the intake of carbohydrates and fats in order to maintain a proper health, a minimum amount of daily protein intake is always a doctor’s first recommendation. The most common food which has a higher amount of protein are eggs, almond, chicken, oats, fish and seafood, soy, beans and pulses, cottage cheese, Greek yogurt, milk, broccoli, and quinoa.

Functions of Proteins

  1. Enzymes: Enzymes mostly carry out all numerous chemical reactions which take place within a cell. They also help in regenerating and creating DNA molecules and carry out complex processes.
  2. Hormones: Proteins are involved in the creation of various types of hormones which help in balancing the components of the body. For example hormones like insulin, which helps in regulating blood sugar and secretin. It is also involved in the digestion process and formation of digestive juices.
  3. Antibody: Antibody also known as an immunoglobulin. It is a type of protein which is majorly used by the immune system to repair and heal the body from foreign bacteria. They often work together with other immune cells to identify and separate the antigens from increasing until the white blood cells destroy them completely.
  4. Energy: Proteins are the major source of energy that helps in the movements of our body. It is important to have the right amount of protein in order to convert it into energy. Protein, when consumed in excess amounts, gets used to create fat and becomes part of the fat cells.

Listed below are few functions of Proteins.

Aspect

Functions

Examples

Storage

Legume Storage, albumin, and proteins.

Supplies food during the early stage of the seedling or embryo.

Hormone Signalling

Counterpart activities of different body parts.

Glucagon and Insulin.

Transport

It transport substances throughout the body through lump or blood cells.

Hemoglobin.

Contraction

To carry out muscle contraction.

Myosin.

Digestive Enzyme

Breaks down nutrients present in the food into smaller portions so that it can be easily absorbed

Pepsin, Amylase, and Lipase

Stay tuned with BYJU’S to learn more about Proteins.


Practise This Question

Which of the following are responsible for tertiary structure of proteins

1) Hydrogen bonding                        2) Disulphide linkage

3) Hydrophobic interactions              4) Ionic bond

 

The correct answer is