Nutrition In Human Beings

Nutrients are the substances in food that maintain the body and make it work.  Most of what one eats is made up of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.  Nutrients needed in smaller amounts, but still vital, are vitamins and minerals.  Also on the list are fibre and water.  Our diet should comprise a mix of foods that supply all necessary nutrients in the right amounts. Such a diet is called a balanced diet. Let’s have a glimpse of nutrition in human beings.

Nutrition in Human Beings

Following are the major nutrients required by the human body:


Complex carbohydrates, particularly starch, are found in foods such as pasta, bread, rice, potatoes, and cereals.  During digestion, starch is broken down to the simple sugar glucose, the body’s main source of energy.

Read more: Carbohydrates

Vitamins and Minerals

Vitamins and Minerals are required in minute amounts and are essential for maintaining a strong immune system, build strong bones and muscles and also promotes normal growth and development.  Most vitamins come from fresh fruit and vegetables, with some also found in fish, meat, dairy, and eggs.  Minerals, such as calcium and iron, also help the body perform optimally.  The best sources are vegetables, dairy, meat, and some fish.

Read more: Vitamins and Minerals


Dairy food, meat, seeds, and nuts all supply fats, as do vegetable oils.  Fat is digested into fatty acids, which are used as an energy source and to make cell membranes. They may be rebuilt into fat, under the skin, which insulates the body and helps to keep us warm.

Read more: Fats


Rich sources of proteins are fish, meat, poultry, and beans. Once digested, proteins supply the body with amino acids. These building blocks are reassembled by cells into different proteins used for construction such as enzymes, and a myriad of other roles.

Read more: Proteins


Around 50 – 70 per cent of our body is made of water. Therefore this amount should always be maintained in the body. Water is the only medium through which all essential nutrients, vitamins, minerals and other wastes in the body are transported. Water also plays a vital role in regulating the body’s temperature.

Read more: Water

Digestion in Human Beings

Digestion is a vital process in humans, which provides energy by breaking down the large food molecules into easily absorbable molecules to produce energy for various life processes. The complete process of digestion happens through a stepwise process which is common to all living organisms. The complete process of digestion in Human digestive system is described below:

  1. Ingestion: It is the process of us ingesting the food by eating it. In the mouth the food material is subject to cutting, tearing, chewing, and a little bit of digestion using the salivary juice and finally swallowing.
  2. Digestion: It is the breakdown of the ingested food into microscopic and finally molecular fragments. Digestion occurs in the oral cavity, stomach and in the small intestine.
  3. Absorption: This is a critical stage where nutrients are taken up from digestive organs and distributed to the body’s tissues. This process is where food ingested is converted to actual energy to be used by our bodies.
  4. Excretion: This is the final process where waste material is excreted from our bodies.

Also Read: Digestion and Absorption

For more information on nutrition in human beings, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.

Frequently Asked Questions


What are the important nutrients required by the human body?

The important nutrients required by the human body are:

  • Carbohydrates
  • Fats
  • Dietary fibres
  • Vitamins
  • Proteins
  • Minerals
  • Water

Why is nutrition important?

Nutrition is important for a healthy lifestyle. A healthy diet can help to reduce the risk of diseases and improves overall health. It also strengthens the bones and muscles and improves memory.


What do you understand by a balanced diet?

A balanced diet is a diet that contains all the vital nutrients required by a human body. The important nutrients present in a balanced diet include carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, proteins, and fibre.


What happens if the nutrient intake is poor?

Poor nutrition leads to stress and tiredness and lowers our efficiency. It can increase the risk of several diseases and health problems such as weak bones, malnutrition and anaemia.


What are the nutrients?

Nutrients are the compounds present in food that are essential to health and life and provide energy to carry out daily activities. They act as the building blocks of the body and help to carry out biochemical processes. The important nutrients are carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins, minerals, etc.

Read more: Nutrients 

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