Plants are generally classified into two types namely angiosperms (flowering plants) or gymnosperms(non-flowering plants). Most of the green plants that we see around belong to the flowering plant’s category. However, these flowering plants are also divided into two types which include monocots (monocotyledons) and dicots (dicotyledons).
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
Monocotyledons or Monocot commonly refers to the flowering plants or angiosperms in which the seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf or Cotyledon. Ginger, onions, wheat, and grass are the best examples of Monocotyledons.
Dicotyledons or Dicot is generally referred to the flowering plants or angiosperms in which the seeds typically contain two embryonic leaves or cotyledon. All legumes, including beans, lentils, pea, and peanuts are the best examples of dicotyledons. There are around 1 lakh to 1.5 lakhs of different species of dicot plants.
The Shoot system is the essential aerial part of the plant, which bears branches, leaves, flowers, fruits and also functions by conduction of water, minerals nutrients, and gases within the plant.
Also, read Anatomy of Monocot and Dicot Plants
They have a circular shaped stem with lateral branches and are bounded with a layer of the dermis, which is mainly composed of hard organized rectangular cells and a waxy substance known as cutin. The internal structure of a monocot stem mainly comprises of well developed, epidermis, hypodermis, ground tissue and numerous dispersed vascular bundles. Tulips, onions, lilies, and garlic are the few best examples of Monocot Stem.
They have a well-defined epidermis with cuticle, a layer of dermis along with the multicellular stem hairs. The internal structure of a dicot stem mainly comprises of epidermis, hypodermis, cortex endodermis, pericycle, vascular strand and pith. Sunflower and Cucurbita are the best examples of Dicot Stem.
Also, read the Difference Between Monocotyledon and Dicotyledon
Normally, dicots and monocots differ in four aspects which include stems, flowers, leaves, and roots. Here let us know more about the differences between a monocot and dicot stem of a plant.
Differences Between Monocot and Dicot Stem
The Dicot and Monocot Stem are distinguished mainly based on the structure of the stem. The important difference between Dicot and Monocot stem have been discussed below:
|The Dicot stem is solid in most of the cases.||The Monocot stem is usually hollow at the center.|
|The hypodermis is formed of collenchyma fibers which are often green in color.||The hypodermis is made of sclerenchyma fibers and they are not green.|
|The internal tissues are the arrangement in concentric layers.||There is no concentric arrangement of tissues.|
|The ground tissue is differentiated as endodermis, cortex, pericycle, medullary rays, pith, etc.||The ground tissue is the same and is composed of a mass of similar cells.|
|The vascular bundles of formed as broken rings.||The vascular bundles are scattered irregularly around the ground tissue.|
|Phloem parenchyma is present.||Phloem parenchyma absent.|
|Pith is well-developed.||Pith is feebly developed.|
|May or may not have epidermal hairs.||Presence of epidermal hairs.|
|Vascular bundles are less in number and are of uniform size.||There are numerous vascular bundles of different sizes.|
|The Dicot stem does not have a bundle sheath on the outside of a vascular bundle.||The monocots stem have a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath on the outside of a vascular bundle.|
|The Dicot stems have trichomes.||The monocot stems do not have trichomes.|
|The vascular bundles always remain open, due to the presence of cambium within phloem and xylem.||The vascular bundles are closed.|
|Dicot stem can feature secondary growth as a result of secondary vascular tissues and periderm formation.||No secondary growth is witnessed in case of monocots.|
|Vessels are of a polygonal shape and are arranged in rows or chains.||Vessels are rounded or oval and are arranged Y-shaped formation.|
|Usually, vascular tissues stop functioning when they get old. New vascular tissues replace the old ones.||Vascular tissues remain the same throughout the plant’s life cycle.|
Learn more about Dicot and Monocot plants, its differences and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology