Plants are classified in many ways, and one of the most widely used methods is flowering plants vs non-flowering plants. Most of the green plants that we see around belong to the flowering plants. Historically, flowering plants were divided into two types which include monocots (monocotyledons) and dicots (dicotyledons).
Monocotyledons and Dicotyledons
Monocotyledons or monocots commonly refer to the flowering plants or angiosperms in which the seeds typically contain only one embryonic leaf or cotyledon. Ginger, onions, wheat, and grass are the best examples of Monocotyledons.
Dicotyledons or dicots are generally referred to the flowering plants or angiosperms in which the seeds typically contain two embryonic leaves or cotyledon. All legumes such as beans, lentils, pea, and peanuts are examples of dicotyledons. There are around 1.0 – 1.5 lakh species of dicot plants.
The shoot system is the essential aerial part of the plant, which bears branches, leaves, flowers and fruits. It is also responsible for the conduction of water, minerals nutrients and gases within the plant.
Monocot stems are a circular-shaped stem with lateral branches and are bounded with a layer of dermis. It is mainly composed of hard, organised, rectangular cells coated with a waxy substance known as cutin. The internal structure of a monocot stem mainly comprises a well-developed epidermis, hypodermis, ground tissue, and numerous dispersed vascular bundles. Tulips, onions, lilies and garlic are examples of monocot stems.
Dicot stems have a well-defined epidermis with cuticle, a layer of dermis along with multicellular stem hair. The internal structure of a dicot stem mainly consists of epidermis, hypodermis, cortex endodermis, pericycle, vascular strand and pith. Sunflower and Cucurbita are examples of dicot stems.
Usually, dicots and monocots differ in four aspects, namely: stems, flowers, leaves and roots. Read on to explore how monocot and dicot stems vary from each other.
Difference Between Monocot and Dicot Stem
Dicot and monocot stems are quite different from each other. The important differences between dicot and monocot stem are as follows:
|The dicot stem is solid in most of the cases.||The monocot stem is usually hollow at the centre.|
|The hypodermis is formed of collenchyma fibres which are often green in colour.||The hypodermis is made of sclerenchyma fibres and they are not green.|
|The internal tissues are arranged in concentric layers.||There is no concentric arrangement of tissues.|
|The ground tissue is differentiated as endodermis, cortex, pericycle, medullary rays, pith, etc.||The ground tissue is the same and is composed of a mass of similar cells.|
|The vascular bundles are formed as broken rings.||The vascular bundles are scattered irregularly around the ground tissue.|
|Phloem parenchyma is present.||Phloem parenchyma is absent.|
|Pith is well-developed.||Pith is not as well-developed in monocots (usually absent in most)|
|Epidermal hair may or may not exist.||Presence of epidermal hair.|
|Vascular bundles are less in number and are of uniform size.||There are numerous vascular bundles of different sizes.|
|The dicot stem does not have a bundle sheath on the outside of a vascular bundle.||The monocot stem has a sclerenchymatous bundle sheath on the outside of a vascular bundle.|
|The dicot stems have trichomes.||The monocot stems do not have trichomes.|
|The vascular bundles always remain open, due to the presence of cambium within phloem and xylem.||The vascular bundles are closed.|
|Dicot stem can feature secondary growth as a result of secondary vascular tissues and periderm formation.||No secondary growth is witnessed in case of monocots.|
|Vessels are of a polygonal shape and are arranged in rows or chains.||Vessels are rounded or oval and are arranged in a Y-shaped formation.|
|Usually, vascular tissues stop functioning when they get old. New vascular tissues replace the old ones.||Vascular tissues remain the same throughout the plant’s life cycle.|
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