Hormones

Hormones: A special chemical messengers of the body that are produced by the endocrine glands. These special messengers control most of the body functions right from primary needs like hunger to complex system and function like reproduction and emotions.

Hormones activities

Important activities of hormones include:

  • Growth and development of promoting cell and tissue.
  • Food metabolism.
  • Initiating and maintaining sexual development and reproduction.
  • Maintaining body temperature.
  • Controlling thirst and hunger.
  • Regulating mood and cognitive functioning.

endocrine system

Hormones secreted by endocrine glands are the ductless glands of the endocrine system.

Primary hormone-producing glands are-

  • Hypothalamus: It is responsible for maintaining body temperature, controls thirst, sleep, hunger, emotions, moods and allow the release of hormones.
  • Parathyroid: This gland helps in controlling the amount of calcium present in the body.
  • Thymus: It helps in functioning of the adaptive immune system, produces T-cells and maturity of the thymus.
  • Pancreas: This gland forms the insulin that helps in maintaining the blood sugar levels.
  • Thyroid: It produces hormones that belong to calorie burning and heart rate.
  • Adrenal: This gland produces the hormones that control the sex drive, cortisol and stress hormone.
  • Pituitary: It is also termed as the “master control gland,”. This is because of the pituitary gland helps in controlling other glands and develops the hormones that trigger growth and development.
  • Pineal: Pineal is also known as the thalamus, it develops serotonin derivatives of melatonin, which can affect sleep.
  • Ovaries: In women, the ovaries secrete estrogen, progesterone, testosterone, and other female sex hormones.
  • Testes: In men, the testes develop the male sex hormone, testosterone, and produces sperm.

All these glands work together to produce and manage the hormones of the body.

Types of Hormones

The body has different types of hormones, some have a major role to play in the well-being and health of a human body. Hence it is important to understand the roles so as to protect and manage the health.

  • Estrogen-This is the main sex hormone present in women which cause puberty, prepares the uterus and body for pregnancy and even regulates the menstrual cycle. Estrogen level changes during menopause because of which women experience many uncomfortable symptoms.
  • Progesterone – This hormone is replicated to estrogen but is not taken as the main sex hormone. It helps in maintaining menstrual cycle and also assist in pregnancy like estrogen does.
  • Cortisol – It has been named as the “stress hormone” by the way it helps the body in responding to stress.
  • Melatonin – The levels of this hormone change throughout the day and helps in controlling the natural cycle of sleeping hours.
  • Testosterone –  This is the main sex hormone present in men which cause puberty, muscle mass growth, and strength, increases bone density and handles facial hair growth.

Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about hormone and its functions.


Practise This Question

Which of the following methods can be used to obtain a definitive diagnosis of type I insulin–dependent diabetes?