What are Angiosperms and Gymnosperms?
Angiosperms and gymnosperms are seed-bearing plants. They have the natural ability to produce seeds surrounded by nutritive tissue and coated with a seed coat. Gymnosperm plants were present 200 million years before the angiosperm plants.
The main difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms is diversity. The diversity of angiosperm is greater than the gymnosperm. The higher diversity indicated the angiosperms are adaptive to terrestrial ecosystems. Another characteristic of angiosperms is the flowers and production of fruits. But, in gymnosperms seed are not included in a fruit.
The word angiosperm derived from Greek meaning container. As the name suggests the angiosperms are vascular plants, which bears seeds in fruits or mature ovaries. Angiosperm forms flower that carries reproductive organs and fruits. These plants are more adaptive to the terrestrial habitat and can be found widespread on earth, around 250000 species have been identified of this class.
Fruits trees including Mango, Apple, Banana, Peach, Cherry, Orange, and Pear often shows flowers before they bear fruits and the pollination process is generally carried out by the agents including bees and other animals.
Grains including rice, corn, and wheat are also examples of Angiosperm. In these plants, the pollination process is carried out by the wind. Other examples of Angiosperms include roses, lilies, Broccoli, kale, Petunias, Eggplant, Tomato, Peppers and sugarcane are also included in the diverse group of angiosperms.
Also, read about Angiosperms
Gymnosperms are other types of plant that bear seeds directly on sporophylls without covering. As the name suggests the gymnosperms are vascular plants of the Kingdom Plantae which bear naked seeds. There are very fewer species of gymnosperms, few examples of these plants are cypress, Gnetum, pine, spruce, redwood, ginkgo, cycads, juniper, fir, and Welwitschia.
The main reason for being very fewer species is the lack of protection of seeds. The seeds are naked and unprotected when released. They need to get into the ground quickly to take root or they will be damaged by animals, weather conditions or any other factors.
Also, read about Gymnosperms
Difference between Angiosperms and Gymnosperms
Following are the important difference between angiosperms and gymnosperms:
|A seed is produced by flowering plants and is enclosed within an ovary||A seed is produced by non-flowering plants and are unenclosed or naked.|
|The lifecycle of these plants are seasonal||These plants are evergreen|
|Has triploid tissue||Has haploid tissue|
|Leaves are flat in shape||Leaves are scalelike and needle-like in shape|
|Hardwood type||Softwood type|
|Reproduction rely on animals||Reproduction rely on wind|
|Reproductive system present in flowers (unisexual or bisexual)||Reproductive system present in cones and are unisexual|
Learn more about the Angiosperms and gymnosperms, examples, the differences between angiosperms and gymnosperms, and other related topics @ BYJU’S Biology