The organisms found in Kingdom fungi contain a cell wall and are omnipresent. They are classified as heterotrophs among the living organisms.
To name a few – the appearance of black spots on bread left outside for some days, the mushrooms, the yeast cells, commonly used for the production of beer and bread are also fungi. They are also found in most of the skin infections and other fungal diseases.
If we observe carefully, all the examples that we cited involve moist conditions. Thus, we can say that fungi usually grow in places which are moist and warm enough to support them.
Also Read: Kingdom Animalia
Structure of Fungi
The structure of fungi can be explained in the following points:
- Almost all the fungi have a filamentous structure except yeast the cells.
- They can be either single-celled or multicellular organism.
- Fungi consist of long thread-like structures known as hyphae. These hyphae together form a mesh-like structure called mycelium.
- Fungi possess a cell wall which is made up of chitin and polysaccharides.
- The cell wall comprises of protoplast which is differentiated into other cell parts such as cell membrane, cytoplasm, cell organelles and nuclei.
- The nucleus is dense, clear, with chromatin threads. The nucleus is surrounded by a nuclear membrane.
Characteristics of Fungi
Following are the important characteristics of kingdom fungi:
- Fungi are eukaryotic, non-vascular, non-motile and heterotrophic organisms.
- They may be unicellular or filamentous.
- They reproduce by means of spores.
- Fungi exhibit the phenomenon of alternation of generation.
- Fungi lack chlorophyll and hence cannot perform photosynthesis.
- Fungi store their food in the form of starch.
- Biosynthesis of chitin occurs in fungi.
- The nuclei of the fungi are very small.
- During mitosis, the nuclear envelope is not dissolved.
- The fungi have no embryonic stage. They develop from the spores.
- The mode of reproduction is sexual or asexual.
- Some fungi are parasitic and can infect the host.
- Fungi produce a chemical called pheromone which leads to sexual reproduction in fungi.
- For eg., mushrooms, moulds, yeast.
Also Read: Five Kingdom Classification
Classification of Fungi
Kingdom Fungi is classified based on different modes. The different classification of fungi are as follows:
Based on Mode of nutrition
On the basis of nutrition, kingdom fungi can be classified into 4 groups.
- Saprophytic – The fungi obtain their nutrition by feeding on dead organic substances. Examples: Rhizopus, Penicillium, and Aspergillus.
- Parasitic – The fungi obtain their nutrition by living on other living organisms (Plants or animals) and absorb nutrients from their host. Examples: Taphrina, and Puccinia.
- Symbiotic – These fungi live by Lichens are the symbiotic association between algae and fungi. Here both algae and fungi are mutually benefited as fungi provide shelter for algae and in reverse algae synthesis carbohydrates for fungi.
Based on Spore Formation
Kingdom Fungi is classified into the following based on the formation of spores:
- Zygomycetes – These are formed by the fusion of two different cells. The sexual spores are known as zygospores while the asexual spores are known as sporangiospores. The hyphae are without the septa.
- Ascomycetes – They are also called as sac fungi. They can be coprophilous, decomposers, parasitic or saprophytic. The sexual spores are called ascospores. Asexual reproduction occurs by conidiospores. Example – Saccharomyces
- Basidiomycetes – Mushrooms are the most commonly found basidiomycetes and mostly live as parasites. Sexual reproduction occurs by basidiospores. Asexual reproduction occurs by conidia, budding or fragmentation. Example- Agaricus
- Deuteromycetes – They are otherwise called imperfect fungi as they do not follow the regular reproduction cycle as the other fungi. They do not reproduce sexually. Asexual reproduction occurs by conidia. Example – Trichoderma.
Reproduction in Kingdom Fungi
Reproduction in fungi is both by sexual and asexual means. The sexual mode of reproduction is referred to as teleomorph and the asexual mode of reproduction is referred to as anamorph.
Vegetative reproduction – By budding, fission, and fragmentation
Asexual reproduction – This takes place with the help of spores called conidia or zoospores or sporangiospores
Sexual reproduction – ascospores, basidiospores, and oospores
The conventional mode of sexual reproduction is not always observed in the kingdom Fungi. In some fungi, the fusion of two haploid hyphae does not result in the formation of a diploid cell. In such cases, there appears an intermediate stage called the dikaryophase. This stage is followed by the formation of diploid cells.
Also Read: Kingdom Monera, Protista and Fungi
Uses of Fungi
Fungi are one of the most important groups of organisms on the planet as it plays a vital role in the biosphere and has great economic importance on account of their both benefits and harmful effects.
Following are some of the important uses of fungi:
- Recycling – They play a major role in recycling the dead and decayed matter.
- Food – Mushrooms species are edible which are cultured and are used as food by humans.
- Medicines – There are many fungi which are used to produce antibiotics, which are used to control diseases in humans and animals. Penicillin antibiotic is derived from a common fungi Penicillium.
- Biocontrol Agents – Fungi are involved in exploiting insects, other small worms and help in controlling pests. Spores of fungi are used as a spray on crops.
- Food spoilage – Fungi play a major role in recycling organic material and are also responsible for major spoilage and economic losses of stored food.
Examples of Fungi
Following are the common examples of fungi:
Also Read: Plant Kingdom
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Frequently Asked Questions
Which organisms belong to kingdom fungi?
Kingdom fungi include mushrooms, yeast, moulds containing filamentous structures called hyphae.
What are the different types of fungi?
The different types of fungi include- Zygomycota, Chytridiomycota, Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Glomeromycota.
Which kingdom is closely related to kingdom fungi?
Kingdom fungi is closely related to the animal kingdom. This has been determined by phylogenetic studies. The phylogenetic tree explains how animals converged form fungi millions of years ago.
What is common between plants and fungi?
Plants and fungi both have a cell wall. Both plants and animals are eukaryotes and cannot move.
Which class of kingdom fungi can move?
Chytridiomycota produces flagellated gametes and is the only exception to the group that can move with the help of flagella. these are ancient fungi and are believed to be a connecting link between fungi and animals.