Flowers are the reproductive part of a plant. They are not only involved in reproduction but are also a source of food for other living organisms. They are a rich source of nectar.
Flowers can either be
A complete flower is the one that consists of sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. On the contrary, an incomplete flower is the one that lacks one or more structures.
A complete flower consists of two different parts:
- Vegetative Part
- Reproductive Part
Let us have a detailed look at the different parts of a flower.
Parts of a Flower
The different parts of a flower are mentioned below:
Vegetative Parts of a Flower
The vegetative part of a flower consists of the following:
- Petals: This is a bright coloured part that attracts bees, insects, and birds. Colour of petals varies from plant to plant; some are bright while some are pale coloured. Thus, petals help us to differentiate one flower from another.
- Sepals: Sepal is the green coloured part beneath the petals to protect rising buds. Some flowers have fused petals-sepals while a few have separated petals-sepals.
Reproductive Parts of a Flower
In different plants, the number of petals, sepals, stamens and pistils can vary. The presence of these parts differentiates the flower into complete or incomplete. Apart from these parts, a flower includes reproductive parts – stamen and pistil. A flower may have only female parts, only male parts, or both.
The reproductive parts of a flower consist of the following:
- Stamen: This is the male reproductive organ and is also known as Androecium. It consists of two parts namely: anther and filaments.
The anther is a yellowish, sac-like structure, involved in producing and storing the pollens. The filament is a slender, threadlike object, which functions by supporting the anther.
- Pistil: This is the innermost part and the female reproductive organ of a flower which comprises three parts -stigma, style and ovary. This is collectively known as the pistil.
Stigma: It is the topmost part or receptive tip of carpels in the gynoecium of a flower.
Style: It is the long tube-like slender stalk that connects stigma and the ovary.
Ovary: It is the ductless reproductive gland that holds a lot of ovules. It is the part of the plant where the seed formation takes place.
Also Read: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants
Functions Of Flower
The important functions of flowers are mentioned below:
- Gametophytes develop in the flowers.
- The flowers can produce diaspores without fertilization.
- After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit containing a seed.
- The most important function of flowers is reproduction. They help in the union of male and female gametes.
- Flowers provide nectar to certain birds and insects, which in turn help in the transfer of pollen from one flower to the other.
- Flowers may promote selfing, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from the same flower, or cross-fertilization, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from different flowers.
Pollination is the process in which the pollens are transferred from anther to stigma. The process of pollination can occur through a different medium.
The table mentioned below describes the different types of pollination along with their pollinating agents.
|Pollination Process||Pollination Medium|
Also Read: What is Pollination
For more detailed information on parts of a flower, its functions and its importance, explore @ BYJU’S Biology.