Flower - Parts And Functions

A plant has different parts like root, stem, leaves, and flower. Among them, the flower is the most attractive part of a plant owing to its beauty and fragrance. Flowers add colours to nature and make it look more pleasant.

Let us have a look at the different parts of a flower and the functions they perform.

Parts Of A Flower

Parts Of A Flower

                               The diagram representing the Parts of a Flower

 

Flowers are the reproductive organs of the plant. Sexual reproduction in plants is enabled by flowering. Flowers are not only a part of reproduction but also a source of food for other living creatures. It is a rich source of nectar. Flowers can either be complete or incomplete. A complete flower consists of two different parts:

  • Vegetative Part
  • Reproductive Part

Vegetative Parts of a Flower

The vegetative part of a flower consists of the following:

  • Petals: This is a bright coloured part which attracts bees, insects, and birds. Colour of petals varies from plant to plant; some are bright while some are pale coloured. Thus, petals help us to differentiate one flower from another.
  • Sepals: Sepal is the green coloured part beneath the petals to protect rising budsSome flowers have fused petals-sepals but some have separated petals-sepals.

Reproductive Parts of a Flower

The reproductive part of a flower consists of the following:

  • StamenThis is the male reproductive organ and is also known as Androecium. It consists of two parts namely: anther and filament which are usually yellow.

  The anther is a sac that produces and stores pollen whereas filament supports the anther.

  • Pistil: This is the innermost part of the flowers. The female reproductive organ of a flower comprises of three parts – stigma, style, and ovary which are collectively known as the pistil.

 Stigma is the topmost part; style is the long tube which connects stigma to the ovary. The ovary has lots of ovules. It is the part of the plant where the seed formation takes place.

In different plants, the number of petals, sepals, stamens and pistils can vary. All these parts might not be present in all plants. Based on this, we can decide whether a flower is complete or incomplete. Depending on the parts present, flowers are either male or female or both.

Also Read: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Functions Of Flower

The important function of flowers are mentioned below:

  1. The most important function of flowers is a reproduction. They help in the union of male and female gametes.
  2. Flowers may promote selfing, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from the same flower, or cross-fertilization, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from different flowers.
  3. The flowers can produce diaspores without fertilization.
  4. Gametophytes develop in the flowers.
  5. Flowers provide nectar to certain birds and insects which in turn help in the transfer of pollen from one flower to the other.
  6. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit containing a seed.

Pollination

Pollination is the process in which the pollens are transferred from anther to stigma. The process of pollination can occur through a different medium.

Pollination Process Pollination Medium
Malacophilous By shells
Chiropteriphilous By bats
Hydrophilous By water
Zoophilous By animals
Anemophilous By air
Entomophilous By insects
Ornithophilous By birds

Also Read: Pollination

For more information on flowers, parts of a flower, and functions of flower, keep visiting BYJU’S website or download BYJU’S app for further reference.

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