Flower - Parts And Functions

Flowers are the reproductive part of a plant. They are not only involved in reproduction but are also a source of food for other living organisms. They are a rich source of nectar.

Flowers can either be

  • Complete
  • Incomplete.

A complete flower is the one that consists of sepals, petals, stamens and pistil. On the contrary, an incomplete flower is the one that lacks one or more structures.

A complete flower consists of two different parts:

  • Vegetative Part
  • Reproductive Part

Let us have a detailed look at the different parts of a flower.

Parts Of A Flower

Parts of a Flower

Parts of a Flower

The different parts of a flower are mentioned below:

Vegetative Parts of a Flower

The vegetative part of a flower consists of the following:

  • Petals: This is a bright coloured part that attracts bees, insects, and birds. Colour of petals varies from plant to plant; some are bright while some are pale coloured. Thus, petals help us to differentiate one flower from another.
  • Sepals: Sepal is the green coloured part beneath the petals to protect rising budsSome flowers have fused petals-sepals while a few have separated petals-sepals.

Reproductive Parts of a Flower

In different plants, the number of petals, sepals, stamens and pistils can vary. The presence of these parts differentiates the flower into complete or incomplete. Apart from these parts, a flower includes reproductive parts – stamen and pistil.  A flower may have only female parts, only male parts, or both.

The reproductive parts of a flower consist of the following:

  • StamenThis is the male reproductive organ and is also known as Androecium. It consists of two parts namely: anther and filaments.

The anther is a yellowish, sac-like structure, involved in producing and storing the pollens. The filament is a slender, threadlike object, which functions by supporting the anther.

  • Pistil: This is the innermost part and the female reproductive organ of a flower which comprises three parts -stigma, style and ovary. This is collectively known as the pistil.

Stigma: It is the topmost part or receptive tip of carpels in the gynoecium of a flower.

Style: It is the long tube-like slender stalk that connects stigma and the ovary.

Ovary: It is the ductless reproductive gland that holds a lot of ovules. It is the part of the plant where the seed formation takes place.

Also Read: Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants

Functions Of Flower

The important functions of flowers are mentioned below:

  1. Gametophytes develop in the flowers.
  2. The flowers can produce diaspores without fertilization.
  3. After fertilization, the ovary of the flower develops into a fruit containing a seed.
  4. The most important function of flowers is reproduction. They help in the union of male and female gametes.
  5. Flowers provide nectar to certain birds and insects, which in turn help in the transfer of pollen from one flower to the other.
  6. Flowers may promote selfing, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from the same flower, or cross-fertilization, i.e., the union of sperms and eggs from different flowers.

Pollination

Pollination is the process in which the pollens are transferred from anther to stigma. The process of pollination can occur through a different medium.

The table mentioned below describes the different types of pollination along with their pollinating agents.

 Pollination Process   Pollination Medium
  Malacophilous   By snails
  Chiropteriphilous   By bats
  Hydrophilous   By water
  Zoophilous   By animals
  Anemophilous   By air
  Entomophilous   By insects
  Ornithophilous   By birds

Also Read: What is Pollination

For more detailed information on parts of a flower, its functions and its importance, explore @ BYJU’S Biology.

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