When we look ourselves in a mirror, we could name our body parts like head, neck, chest, abdomen, trunk, hands, legs, feet. Each of the body parts is framed by the fundamental unit of life called cells.
The build-up of our organs would be like Cell -> Tissue -> Organs -> Organ System -> Organism.
Anatomy of body parts:
Medical advancements have made it possible for human anatomy using electron microscopes and other far complex techniques to explore human body parts. Human anatomy refers to the study of human body parts and organs.
Earlier, the dissection of animals and corpses (cadavers) technique was used in the most simpler sense for understanding the functions of organs and systems in a body of a human. But now, it is considered as the most prominent scientific field study.
Human Physiology: It is referred to the physical, mechanical, and biochemical function of humans. This study lays the foundation stone of modern medicine. This connects health, medicine, and science in the way that studies how the human body is acquainted itself to physical activity, stress, and diseases.
The person who is trained to study Human physiology is called a Physiologist. Herman Boerhaave is referred to as the father of physiology for his exemplary research and teaching during 1708.
Let’s study what are the important parts of the human body:
The circulatory system is also referred to as the cardiovascular system. It comprises the heart and all the blood vessels: arteries, capillaries, and veins. It is called as the “transportation system” that helps to transfer oxygen, nutrients, fuels, waste product, circulating blood from one body part to another etc. The heart’s primary work is to carry the blood to move from tissues to blood vessels and back.
The organs related to digestive system are:
- Mouth, tongue, and teeth.
- Gastrointestinal Tract :
- Small Intestine.
- Large Intestine.
- The digestive system does the circulation to all the tissues of the human body and pushes the unused residue out of the body.
- The major purpose of digestion is to break foodstuff into small components until they are assimilated into the body.
- Saliva helps in producing bolus so that the food could be swallowed to pass in the esophagus and then finally onto the stomach.
- Small intestine helps to absorb the nutrients from the digested food. The Large intestine, on the other hand, helps to absorb the water and solid wastes. It stores the waste materials which are removed through anus by sphincter contraction.
Human Reproductive System
The human reproductive system is also known as the genital system that comprises of internal and external organs that help in reproduction. It varies for both males and females.
Hormones, fluids, and pheromones are all connective accessories for the reproductive organs to function.
- The female reproductive system:
Ovaries: Produces ovum – female egg as well as the hormone estrogen.
Uterine tubes: Oviducts or fallopian tubes are the other names given for uterus tubes. Popularly known as the womb, the Uterus is the pear-shaped organ that is considered as the home for the fetus to grow. The cervix is the route to vagina and gateway for sperm to enter. Vagina acts as the route for a penis to enter during intercourse as well as the fetus to deliver.
The Male reproductive body parts are:
The male reproductive system consists testicles as one of the prime members that act as a storehouse of sperms. These oval-shaped organs are a encased in a pouch that is called scrotum. Next to testis is the vas deferens that are the accessory ducts for the male sexual system. When sperm is formed, it is mixed with fluids that are produced by seminal glands, prostate gland, and Cowper’s gland. The main purpose of Cowper gland is to hike the semen volume and lubrication during coitus.
Respiratory organs take care of the entire respiratory process that involves intake of oxygen and exhale of carbon dioxide among the organisms and environment. This system is also known as the ventilatory system or respiratory apparatus.
Invertebrates like human beings, lungs are the organs with which respiration takes place.
Respiration starts with the cycle of inhalation and exhalation. By inhalation, we mean the passage from where the oxygen enters into the body and by exhalation we mean the passage through which carbon dioxide exits from the human system. Anatomically speaking, respiratory organs include:
By diffusion, molecules of carbon dioxide and oxygen are exchanged passively among the blood cells and external environment. This swap is done through alveoli (which are the air sacks) in the lungs.
- Nervous System
The voluntary and involuntary actions are maintained and taken care by the central nervous system. It helps to channel the signals to and from different parts of our body. Nervous System is broadly classified into two categories :
- Central Nervous System
- Peripheral Nervous System
The central nervous system contains the brain and the spinal cord while the peripheral nervous system centers include nerves that are enclosed with bundles of long fibers and axons. Through the axons, every part of the body gets connected.
The Central Nervous system consists of:
- The forebrain: It comprises of the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and thalamus. The largest part of the brain is the cerebrum. Thinking, perceiving, controlling motor function, receiving and processing information and understanding language are the main functions done by this section of the brain.Also, the sexual development and emotions functions are attached to the forebrain.
- The Midbrain: It is situated between the hypothalamus and thalamus. The brain stem is associated with midbrain. Auditory and visual responses are controlled by midbrain.
- The Hindbrain: The medulla, pons, and cerebellum are together tied in the hindbrain. Interconnections of different parts of the brain’s surface that helps to accommodate neurons and connect them to spinal column are done by the Hindbrain.
The peripheral nervous system consists of:
- Somatic nervous system: The system’s main purpose is to transmit the impulses from skeletal muscles to CNS and back. The best examples might be of the olfactory system, a sensory system like optic etc. The spinal nerves are considered as the merging point.
- Autonomic Nervous System: The system helps to relay impulse from central nervous system to smooth muscles and involuntary organs. Preparation of the body against any violent attack or abnormal conditions are taken care by the system.
Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about Human Anatomy.