The stage in the life cycle that is found in all plants and certain species of algae. This process includes both multicellular diploid generation known as Sporophyte and a multicellular haploid generation known as Gametophyte. The word Diploid refers to two sets of chromosomes in the cells, and normally written as ‘2n’. Haploid to only one set of chromosomes in the cells and written as ‘n’.
The primary job of gametophyte is the production of Gametes. The produced gametes are the haploid reproductive cells, such as sperm and eggs. They are designed in sex organs on the haploid gametophyte through mitosis without decrease of chromosomes sets.
Types of sex organs present in the gametophytes are:
Archegonium: A multicellular sex organ in the female that creates eggs.
Antheridium: A Multicellular sex organ in the male that produces sperm.
Archegonium is like an ovary in females because both structures form haploid cells of the egg. An antheridium is just like a testis a testis in human males because both generate haploid sperm cells. Both antheridia and archegonia are normally microscopic structures.
Some of the gametophytes have both antheridia and archegonia. These are known as bisexual gametophytes since they consist of both female and male structures. A gametophyte that has only one kind of gametangium is known as unisexual gametophyte.
Gametophyte and Sporophyte
All plants reproduce both by sexually and asexually due to variation in generations.
Gametophytes and sporophytes consist of genetic elements of the plant species. Some of the complex vascular plants spend more time as sporophytes, while mosses are not the same. The visible part of the plant is visible is the gametophyte stage of these species.
There is only one copy of every chromosome in Haploid gametophytes in their every cell; this is the reason why this life phase must produce asexually. Eventually, gametophytes create gametes that combine to produce a diploid zygote and grows into sporophyte.
Diploid sporophytes consist of two copies of every chromosome, hence it is able to support meiosis to produce haploid spores that grow into gametophytes, and brings the alternation of generations.
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