Pteridophytes are vascular plants that reproduce and disperse via spores. These plants produce neither flowers nor seeds.Pteridophyta Classification
Pteridophytes consist of two separate classes
- Lycopodiidae (clubmosses)
- Selaginellidae (spikemosses, quillworts)
- Psilotidae: Psilotales (whisk ferns) and Ophioglossales (e.g. grape ferns)
- Equisetidae (horsetails)
- Marattiidae (marattioid ferns)
- Polypodiidae (leptosporangiate ferns, the most species-rich group)
- Pteridophytes are the first true land plants.
- They are seedless, vascular cryptogams.
- Life cycle is heterologous diplohaplontic type.
- Sporophyte has true roots, stem and leaves.
- Spores develop in sporangia are homosporous or heterosporous.
- Sporangia are produced in groups on sporophylls.
- Young leaves of sporophyte show circinate vernation.
- Sex organs multi-cellular and jacketed.
Life Cycle of PteridophytaSimilar to the life cycle of seed plants, the pteridophytes also involves alternation of generations in its life cycle. But the pteridophytes differ from mosses and seed plants in that both generations are independent and free-living. The sexuality of pteridophyte gametophytes can be classified as follows:
- Dioicous: each individual gametophyte is either male producing antheridia and sperm or female producing archegonia and egg cells.
- Monoicous: each individual gametophyte produces both antheridia and archegonia and can function both as a male and as a female.
- Protandrous: the antheridia mature before the archegonia: in order – male first, then female.
- Protogynous: the archegonia mature before the antheridia: in order – female first, then male.
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