Nutrients

Nutrients are elements in foods that a living being uses to endure and grow. They are various factors that nutrients are influenced that may be a factor of age, activities, and stage of growth.

nutrients

nutrients

Types of Nutrients

In general, they are divided into two categories.

  • Macronutrients
  • Micronutrients

Above nutrients could be obtained from the environment. Macronutrients provide energy to a living being for the function of the metabolic system. They provide massive energy has it is converted used to obtain energy.  Macronutrients include fats, proteins, and carbohydrates.

Micronutrient provides essential components for metabolism to be carried out. They also build and repair damaged tissues in order to control body process. Micronutrients include calcium, iron, vitamins, iron, minerals and vitamin C.

Nutrients in Food

Essential nutrients

  • Carbohydrates: It is one of the main sources of energy for the human beings. It comprises of three types of carbohydrates and they include fiber, sugar, and starch. They are usually low calories and thus help in maintaining a healthy diet.
  • Calcium: It is a mineral that is vital for building strong bones and teeth. In very fewer quantities it is also needed to our nerves, muscles work and heart. Sources of calcium include pudding, milk, yogurt, tofu, canned fish, and fresh leafy green vegetables. Lack of calcium leads to a disease called Osteoporosis.
  • Cholesterol: It is essential for brain, nerves, and development of cells. It plays an important role in the forming of enzymes and hormones. Foods include cheese, milk, chicken, beef, and fish.
  • Fat: It is one of the most important sources of calories. One gram of fat consists of 9 calories. It is almost twice of calories that we get from carbohydrates and proteins.  Fat is usually found in foods that we use in cooking, as spreads on bread and it also found in snacks, pastries.
  • Iron: It is a constituent of our red blood cells. Its function is to carry oxygen from our lungs to organs, muscles, and cells. Food sources include spinach, soybeans and other leafy vegetables.
  • Protein: They are made of amino acids. We can obtain protein in foods such as nuts, lentils, beef, rice, chicken, beef etc.
  • Sodium: Foods like milk and fresh vegetables contain sodium. Lack of sodium might lead to high blood pressure.

Stay tuned with Byju’s to learn more about nutrients, their types, and its deficiencies.

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Practise This Question

Regarding the assertion and reason, select the right option.

Assertion [A]: Continued smoking over time causes deformation of alveoli.
Reason [R]: Inflammation of air passages due to smoking leads to trapping of the smoke and collapse of alveoli deforming the alveolar chamber.